IV, No. It is further argued that the presence of such factors is conducive to the creation of a fantasy world, one to which he plans a periodic escape. The components of the typology are also briefly examined. On returning to Britain.

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IV, No. It is further argued that the presence of such factors is conducive to the creation of a fantasy world, one to which he plans a periodic escape.

The components of the typology are also briefly examined. On returning to Britain. Le present article pose la question nettement: "Pourquoi voyagent les touristes?

There exists a variety of perspectives on how a tourist behaves at a given destination, but few investigations begin with the question, "What makes tourists travel? After a pre-test and pilot inquiry, a further interviews were conducted of winter tourists in Barbados during the peak season months of January and February, Visitors were stratified by country of residence, age, sex and socio-economic status, with immigration statistics acting as the basis for proportional representation of the above variables.

A summary of the pertinent aspects of this research is presented here. A review of the literature related to tourist motivation quickly reveals that much of what is said in answer to "what makes tourists travel?

Consequently, in designing the Barbados research, the need was felt for a theoretical frame of reference which could be tested at the level of hypothesis. Moreover, it was seen that a preference had been displayed towards "pull" factors in seeking to explain why tourists travelled. As a result, "push" factors had either been placed in abeyance or were given a minimal treatment.

An examination of "push" factors is thus logically, and often temporally, antecedent to that of "pull" factors. Consequently, if one is to go beyond the level of description an investigation of "push" factors is indicated. It was further maintained that if these could be understood at the physiological and psychological levels then the theoretical framework of the research should reflect this.

Consequently, it was hypo- thesised that motive for travel lay in the twin concepts of "anomie" and "ego-enhance- ment. It appears to be equally applicable today, where there is conflict in wars, strikes, football hooligan- ism, muggings, highjackings and guerrilla violence.

Economic instability too is often seen as being indicative of anomie, where competition demands that each indi- vidual fend for himself and the weakest go to the wall. Anomie is therefore a term useful for its applicability. Now, given that the potential tourist lives in an anomic society along with everyone else, it is strange that the connection between his home situation and his leisure patterns has not been thoroughly investigated.

A sensing of the connection between "what makes tourists travel" and the anomic society from which they come thus acts as a hallmark for the current theoretical perspective. It is claimed that a possible "push" factor for travel lies in the desire to transcend the feeling of isolation obtained in everyday life, where the tourist simply wishes to "get away from it all.

However, if he lives in a large town or city, this possibility is often denied him. His commuting and his work account for most of the day, and what little remaining time he has at home is often spent in front of the television.

His exhaustion permits only limited conversation with his wife and children, let alone friends and neighbors or relations. Yet the need for social inter- action is still present.

Hence it can only be fulfilled away from the home environment, i. A situation of anomie can thus be considered as predispos- ing him for travel.

However anomie is not just present in cities. The habitant of a village may suffer from it, albeit for a different reason, namely over-personal contact and lack of privacy. In an attempt to avoid the prying and gossiping, he may isolate himself, where once more the need for social interaction manifests itself. Anomie can induce a travel-response in rural tourists too.

In sociological parlance, the desire for such recognition by others is often described in terms of "status. Consequently, alternative strategies are employed to enhance the ego than that traditionally based on socio-economic status.

One such strategy is that of travel. A tourist can go to a place where his social position is unknown and where he can feel superior by dint of this lack of knowledge. Additionally, on his return a further boost can be given to his ego in the recounting of his holiday experiences--trip dropping 6, p. If he goes to a prestige resort then he can assume greater status by paying a great deal or by mixing with an exclusive set. If he goes to a corner of the world relatively poorer than his own then he may obtain satisfaction of his need in lording it over the host community.

Only travel provides such an opportunity for self recognition. It can be argued, for instance, that in the monotomy of suburbia, the faceless city or the public village, life only becomes tolerable with the thought that there are chances of periodic escape from such an existence, and that travel provides the ideal outles.

Additionally, however, travel has the advantage of permitting the traveller to behave in a manner normally circumvented by the dictates of convention.

When on holiday the tourist can overstep the bounds of fashion, tell a few stories normally deemed improper or inappropriate, wear flashy clothes, eat exotic food, get drunk, become more sexually permissive, alter his timetable, stay up half the night, listen to loud local music, etc. The possibility of actually doing what he wishes in his world of travel, surely underlies that essentially such a world is one of fantasy, for fantasy is a wish or desire, expressive of a need, which cannot be fulfilled in terms of current role expectations, but which is capable of defining situa- tions once these role expectations, or the circumstances in which they are found, have been modified or removed.

Related to anomie, the fantasy world of travel seeks to overcome the humdrum, the normlessness and meaninglessness of life, with more satisfying experiences. As regards ego-enhancement, travel presents the tourist with the opportu- nity to boost his ego in acting out an alien personality.

Just what sub-types of fantasy are associated with anomie and ego-enhancement has been treated elsewhere.

In the analysis of the data, a correlation matrix for each scale was computed and the following points noted: First, in each scale there was strong positive association among all items, Application of an F-test revealed all correlations to be significant at the 0. Second,further intercorrelation between anomie and ego-enhancement items either yielded weak or negative coefficients, thereby indicating the independence of the two sets of items. Third, calculation of the mean inter-item correlation for each item in the two scales demostrated no significant weakness of any one item.

Consequent- ly there was no need for item deletion. Finally, the mean inter-item, correlation for each scale was computed and from these two figures alpha coefficients 8 of reliability calculated. The anomie scale yielded an alpha value of 0. For the ego-enhancement scale an alpha value of 0. A degree of confidence in the two scales concerning their inherent reliability was therefore obtained. For a discussion of theoreti- cal validity, however, it is necessary to examine each of the items separately.

It was felt that not only would man be alienated in the work situation cf. The needs still outstanding, they therefore had to be fulfilled elsewhere, i.

Respondents were also asked if they felt more or less relaxed now that they were on holiday. From the replies to this question, it was clear that the anomics viewed their vacation primarily in terms of relaxation and that such pre-trip expectations had become prophetically self-fulfilled.

For them tile "pull" factor of sunshine was consid- ered of secondary importance. It was further hypothesised that as the anomic had little social interaction in their home environment this was subsequently tested and found to be the case , then with the need for such interaction still remaining unfulfilled, there would be a tendency for this category of tourist to interact to a much greater degree when in the holiday situation.

In point of fact this hypothesis was borne out at the levels of both tourist and host community. Not only was above average interaction recorded vis-a-vis fellow visitors, hotel management, hotel staff, taxi drivers and resident Badaadians, but also a high degree of friendly reciprocity noted for each category. One also observed the tendency among the anomic tourists to discuss topics not related to t h e i r o w n home environment with the above groups.

In other words, it was presum- ably felt that discussion of their own anomic situation would tend to resurrect those very sentiments from which they wished to escape. Instead it was found that the anomic preferred to talk about the life and culture of the people with whom they came into contact, in this way, replacing their own dull world with the more exciting world of the other.

This desire for social interaction was further evidenced in two more items of the scale. At this point the connection between anomie and the need for social interaction became even more convinving.

Feelings of nostalgia for the "good old days" were revived by quaint old buildings, narrow streets, donkey carts, sugar mills and the leisurely pace of the host community, and heavily contrasted with the concrete and polluted metropolis from which two thirds of the tourists came. For them the impossibility of turning the colck back to the days of service, smiles and neighborliness, was a fact of life.

Thus their desire for these human conditions had to be fulfilled else- where, and what better than a Third World country which had not succumed to the "folly" of so-called "progress. A common theme running through all these replies, however, was that here at least one could fulfil those needs and desires denied them back home.

For them Barbados was very much a dream come true. In fact when interviewees were asked to compare t h e i r motives for travel at both the pre-trip and on-trip stages of their holiday, their replies indicated that very little change had taken place. Moreover, it was discovered that original expectations and anticipations of the holiday were rarely altered by temporary inconveniences or discomfort on vacation, again lending weight to the importance of pre-trip attitudes among tourists.

It was therefore considered useful to ask respon- dents to recall those people to whom the holiday was mentioned prior to departure, and where reference was made to particular categories of persons, the type o f discussion that took place. The reason for this last manoeuvre lay in the hypothesis that those who had ego-enhancement in their motivational orientation would be quick to point out the prestige aspects of their holiday to their contemporaries.

In the first instance there was ego-enhancement itself. There was an actual need to "trip drop," to create envy and to engage in status battles with others. The second reason could be described in terms of utility value. A neighbor might be asked to keep an eye on the house or to mind the dog. Finally, it was possible to categorize a number of reasons hot falling into either of the above two classifications, but which tended to emphasize the naturalness of the remarks, many of which contained a string courtesy element.

D A N N Clearly in looking at ego-enhancement one was concerned with the first of these three sets of replies. The scale itself was formed when this set was applied to different groups to whom the holiday was mentioned, i.

To obtain an answer to this question the independent variables were clustered into two principa! It was fu,thcr seen that Set One became associated with the anomie scale and that Set Two became aligned with the ego-enhancement scale. A variable by variable analysis of Set One thus presented one with a picture of the anomic tourist. In this way it could inhibit relationships with others, a hallmark of the anomic tourist, as has previously been noted.

Nevertheless, obviously this is an area which requires further investigation. It was also discovered that there was an association between the various dependent variables on the anomie sea le and above average socio-econornic status, as measured by occupation, class of travel and type of accommodation on the island. As such status had been achieved through occupation, its reflection in more expensive tastes tended to reinforce social position and saw to it that status was maintained even in the holiday situation.

The actual achievement of status through work, however, presumably must have entailed a certain amount of sacrifice in the area of social interaction. Wnh men in higher status positions than women in this sample of tourists , it therefore came as no surprise fo find males more anomically oriented. Similarly the young, who rated more highly on occupation than the elderly,displayed more of a tendency towards anomie in their attitudes.

Contrary to expectation, however, was the discovery that those from small t o w n s and rural areas were more anomically inclined than those from large cities. Perhaps this should cause one to reflect the aforementioned feeling that privacy had been invaded in the smaller community, forcing retirement of those who nevertheless still required communication with their fellow man.

Thus, it would appear that anomie is not dependent on size of surrounding population but on the type of contact established with that population.


A review of audio guides in the era of smart tourism

History of Tourism Tourist Motivations Tourist motivations explain the factors in which influence a tourist to travel. Crompton states that the essence of a vacation was the individual having a break from their typical routine and within most theories of motivation the concept of a stable equilibrium is either stated or implied NcNeal, Equilibrium would be resorted at the conclusion of the vacation after the needs of the tourist had been meet in order to relieve the tension in the motivational system Howard and Sheth However Dann argues that the element of travel provides the opportunity for ego-enhancement and self-recognition allowing man to reach the fulfillment in which they require to be recognized.


Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism


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