Life dates[ edit ] Apollonius was born into a respected and wealthy Greek family. Sources[ edit ] The earliest and by far the most detailed source is the Life of Apollonius of Tyana , a lengthy, novelistic biography written by the sophist Philostratus at the request of empress Julia Domna. To some extent it is a valuable source because it contains data from older writings which were available to Philostratus, but disappeared later on. Among these works are an excerpt preserved by Eusebius from On Sacrifices, and certain alleged letters of Apollonius.
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Life dates[ edit ] Apollonius was born into a respected and wealthy Greek family. Sources[ edit ] The earliest and by far the most detailed source is the Life of Apollonius of Tyana , a lengthy, novelistic biography written by the sophist Philostratus at the request of empress Julia Domna.
To some extent it is a valuable source because it contains data from older writings which were available to Philostratus, but disappeared later on. Among these works are an excerpt preserved by Eusebius from On Sacrifices, and certain alleged letters of Apollonius. The sage may have actually written some of these works, along with the no-longer extant Biography of Pythagoras.
There also survives, separately from the life by Philostratus, a collection of letters of Apollonius, but at least some of these seem to be spurious.
Some scholars claim that the notebooks of Damis were an invention of Philostratus,  while others think it could have been a real book forged by someone else and naively used by Philostratus.
He had allegedly been accused of conspiring against the emperor, performing human sacrifice , and predicting a plague by means of magic. Philostratus implies that upon his death, Apollonius of Tyana underwent heavenly assumption.
The Adana Inscription has been translated by C. The tomb in Tyana received his body, but in truth heaven received him so that he might drive out the pains of men or: drive pains from among men. However Miroslav Marcovich translates part of the text as "Sure enough, Apollonius was born in Tyana, but the full truth is that he was a heaven-sent sage and healer, a new Pythagora"  As James Francis put it, "the most that can be said As for his philosophical convictions, we have an interesting, probably authentic fragment of one of his writings On sacrifices , in which he expresses his view that God, who is the most beautiful being, cannot be influenced by prayers or sacrifices and has no wish to be worshipped by humans, but can be reached by a spiritual procedure involving nous intellect , because he himself is pure nous, and nous is the greatest faculty of humankind.
Both Philostratus and renowned historian Cassius Dio report this incident, probably on the basis of an oral tradition. Pythagoras , whom the Neo-Pythagoreans regarded as an exemplary sage, was believed to have travelled to India. Hence such a feat made Apollonius look like a good Pythagorean who spared no pains in his efforts to discover the sources of oriental piety and wisdom. And the description that Philostratus provides of Taxila comports with modern archaeological excavations at the ancient site.
Porphyry and Iamblichus refer to a biography of Pythagoras by Apollonius, which has not survived; it is also mentioned in the Suda. Some of them are cited in full, others only partially. There is also an independently transmitted collection of letters preserved in medieval manuscripts.
It is difficult to determine what is authentic and what not. Some of the letters may have been forgeries or literary exercises assembled in collections which were already circulated in the 2nd century AD. Ehrman relates that in the introduction to his textbook on the New Testament , he describes an important figure from the first century without first revealing he is writing about the stories attached to Apollonius of Tyana: Even before he was born, it was known that he would be someone special.
A supernatural being informed his mother that the child she was to conceive would not be a mere mortal but would be divine. He was born miraculously, and he became an unusually precocious young man. As an adult he left home and went on an itinerant preaching ministry, urging his listeners to live, not for the material things of this world, but for what is spiritual.
He gathered a number of disciples around him, who became convinced that his teachings were divinely inspired, in no small part because he himself was divine. He proved it to them by doing many miracles, healing the sick, casting out demons, and raising the dead. But at the end of his life he roused opposition, and his enemies delivered him over to the Roman authorities for judgment.
Still, after he left this world, he returned to meet his followers in order to convince them that he was not really dead but lived on in the heavenly realm. Later some of his followers wrote books about him. Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam thrived however, because the existing conditions were favorable. Price in his The Christ-Myth Theory and its Problems, notes that the ancients often compared Jesus with Apollonius and that they both fit the mythic hero archetype.
Chesterton the writer and Christian apologist , however, noted that the unique trial, suffering and death of Christ stand in stark opposition to the stories about Apollonius which he felt were very likely spurious. Although he related various miraculous feats of Apollonius, he emphasized at the same time that his hero was not a magician, but a serious philosopher and a champion of traditional Greek values. According to the Historia Augusta he abstained from destroying the city after having a vision of Apollonius admonishing him to spare the innocent citizens.
Perhaps this parallel was intentional, but the original aim was hardly to present Apollonius as a rival of Jesus.
However, in the late 3rd century Porphyry , an anti-Christian Neoplatonic philosopher, claimed in his treatise Against the Christians that the miracles of Jesus were not unique, and mentioned Apollonius as a non-Christian who had accomplished similar achievements.
This attempt to make Apollonius a hero of the anti-Christian movement provoked sharp replies from bishop Eusebius of Caesarea and from Lactantius. This started a debate on the relative merits of Jesus and Apollonius that has gone on in different forms into modern times. In Late Antiquity talismans made by Apollonius appeared in several cities of the Eastern Roman Empire , as if they were sent from heaven.
The great popularity of these talismans was a challenge to the Christians. Beginning in the early 16th century, there was great interest in Apollonius in Europe, but the traditional ecclesiastical viewpoint prevailed, and until the Age of Enlightenment the Tyanean was usually treated as a demonic magician and a great enemy of the Church who collaborated with the devil and tried to overthrow Christianity.
These comparisons continued into the 20th century. Some early- to midth-century Theosophists , notably C. Leadbeater , Alice A. Bailey and Benjamin Creme , have maintained that Apollonius of Tyana was the reincarnation of the being they call the Master Jesus.
Helena Blavatsky in refers to Appolonius of Tyana as "the great thaumaturgist of the second century AD". Pound identified him as Aryan within an anti-semitic mythology, and celebrated his Sun worship and aversion to ancient Jewish animal sacrifice. Lao by Charles G. Finney , Apollonius appears in the employ of Dr. There he dwells in eternal repose, in company with the Biblical Enoch , the Chinese King Wen and Lao Tze , the 19th-century Briton Bathurst , and various other sages of the past and future, some of them Martians.
Apollonius is shown confounding the Emperor and many others in quick-witted dialogue, reminiscent of Socrates. This character does not have any philosophical context, rather he is a sideshow attraction similar to a fortune teller who has been blessed with clairvoyance.
While he always speaks the truth about the future, he is accursed with an ironic fate - nobody ever believes what he says. Editions[ edit ] Philostratus: Apollonius of Tyana. Christopher P. Jones, vol.
Frasi di Apollonio di Tiana
Nasita: 4 d. Tiana Cappadocia Morte: - Personaggio: Sapiente, filosofo, divino, pitagorico e taumaturgo Filostrato Flavio, nato intorno il d. Non dimentichiamo che i Vangeli sono: - di Matteo 70 - 90 d. Tutti posteriori al Cristo e ad Apollonio.
Vita di Apollonio di Tiana
Apollonio di Tiana