He simply liked the idea, he says, of studying something on biran a large scale. They would be another world, another version of this place, that pwralelos not overlap with it in any spatiotemporal sense. Big Bang to Now in 10 Easy Steps ]. Although they may use some terminology interchangeably, the series dives into some intense, confusing topics in theoretical physics and astrophysics.
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He said that when his equations seemed to describe several different histories, these were "not alternatives, but all really happen simultaneously". Brief explanation[ edit ] Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology , physics , astronomy , religion , philosophy , transpersonal psychology , music and all kinds of literature , particularly in science fiction , comic books and fantasy.
In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternate universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel universes", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "parallel realities", "quantum realities", "alternate realities", " alternate timelines ", "alternate dimensions" and "dimensional planes". The physics community has debated the various multiverse theories over time.
Prominent physicists are divided about whether any other universes exist outside of our own. Some physicists say the multiverse is not a legitimate topic of scientific inquiry. The ability to disprove a theory by means of scientific experiment has always been part of the accepted scientific method. Feeney analyzed Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP data and claimed to find evidence suggesting that our universe collided with other parallel universes in the distant past.
To be sure, all cosmologists accept that there are some regions of the universe that lie beyond the reach of our telescopes, but somewhere on the slippery slope between that and the idea that there is an infinite number of universes, credibility reaches a limit. As one slips down that slope, more and more must be accepted on faith, and less and less is open to scientific verification.
Extreme multiverse explanations are therefore reminiscent of theological discussions. Indeed, invoking an infinity of unseen universes to explain the unusual features of the one we do see is just as ad hoc as invoking an unseen Creator.
The multiverse theory may be dressed up in scientific language, but in essence it requires the same leap of faith. He accepts that the multiverse is thought to exist far beyond the cosmological horizon. He emphasized that it is theorized to be so far away that it is unlikely any evidence will ever be found.
Ellis also explained that some theorists do not believe the lack of empirical testability falsifiability is a major concern, but he is opposed to that line of thinking: Many physicists who talk about the multiverse, especially advocates of the string landscape , do not care much about parallel universes per se.
For them, objections to the multiverse as a concept are unimportant. Their theories live or die based on internal consistency and, one hopes, eventual laboratory testing. Ellis says that scientists have proposed the idea of the multiverse as a way of explaining the nature of existence. He points out that it ultimately leaves those questions unresolved because it is a metaphysical issue that cannot be resolved by empirical science.
He argues that observational testing is at the core of science and should not be abandoned:  As skeptical as I am, I think the contemplation of the multiverse is an excellent opportunity to reflect on the nature of science and on the ultimate nature of existence: why we are here In looking at this concept, we need an open mind, though not too open. It is a delicate path to tread. Parallel universes may or may not exist; the case is unproved. We are going to have to live with that uncertainty.
Nothing is wrong with scientifically based philosophical speculation, which is what multiverse proposals are. But we should name it for what it is. They are briefly described below.
Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of matter , almost all will differ from our Hubble volume.
However, because there are infinitely many, far beyond the cosmological horizon , there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, and even identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical volume to ours should be about meters away from us. Level II: Universes with different physical constants[ edit ] In the eternal inflation theory, which is a variant of the cosmic inflation theory, the multiverse or space as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever,  but some regions of space stop stretching and form distinct bubbles like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread.
Such bubbles are embryonic level I multiverses. Different bubbles may experience different spontaneous symmetry breaking , which results in different properties, such as different physical constants.
In brief, one aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations, each with a different probability. According to the MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. Suppose a six-sided die is thrown and that the result of the throw corresponds to a quantum mechanics observable.
All six possible ways the die can fall correspond to six different universes. In effect, all the different "worlds" created by "splits" in a Level III multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in some Hubble volume in a Level I multiverse. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional space. According to Yasunori Nomura , this quantum multiverse is static, and time is a simple illusion.
Tegmark writes: Abstract mathematics is so general that any Theory Of Everything TOE which is definable in purely formal terms independent of vague human terminology is also a mathematical structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of entities denoted by words, say and relations between them denoted by additional words is nothing but what mathematicians call a set-theoretical model, and one can generally find a formal system that it is a model of.
He argues that this "implies that any conceivable parallel universe theory can be described at Level IV" and "subsumes all other ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses, and there cannot be, say, a Level V. Schmidhuber explicitly includes universe representations describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after finite time, although the convergence time itself may not be predictable by a halting program, due to the undecidability of the halting problem.
With an infinite amount of space, every possible event will occur an infinite number of times. However, the speed of light prevents us from being aware of these other identical areas. Inflationary The inflationary multiverse is composed of various pockets in which inflation fields collapse and form new universes.
Brane The brane multiverse version postulates that our entire universe exists on a membrane brane which floats in a higher dimension or "bulk". In this bulk, there are other membranes with their own universes.
These universes can interact with one another, and when they collide, the violence and energy produced is more than enough to give rise to a big bang. The branes float or drift near each other in the bulk, and every few trillion years, attracted by gravity or some other force we do not understand, collide and bang into each other.
This repeated contact gives rise to multiple or "cyclic" big bangs. This particular hypothesis falls under the string theory umbrella as it requires extra spatial dimensions. Cyclic The cyclic multiverse has multiple branes that have collided, causing Big Bangs. The universes bounce back and pass through time until they are pulled back together and again collide, destroying the old contents and creating them anew. Quantum fluctuations drop the shapes to a lower energy level, creating a pocket with a set of laws different from that of the surrounding space.
Quantum The quantum multiverse creates a new universe when a diversion in events occurs, as in the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Holographic The holographic multiverse is derived from the theory that the surface area of a space can encode the contents of the volume of the region. Simulated The simulated multiverse exists on complex computer systems that simulate entire universes.
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