Smyth and Tamsin C. Anderson and Donald G. Ahrens and Mary L. Tyburczy and Diana K. Dingwell Viscosity of the Outer Core a R.
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Smyth and Tamsin C. Anderson and Donald G. Ahrens and Mary L. Tyburczy and Diana K. Dingwell Viscosity of the Outer Core a R. King Plastic Rheology of Crystals J. Coverage of topics and authors were carefully chosen to fulfill these objectives. The first version of this Handbook was edited by F. Birch, J. Schairer, and H. The second edition, edited by Sydney P. Clark, Jr. Since , our scientific knowledge of the Earth and planets has grown enormously, spurred by the discovery and verification of plate tectonics and the systematic exploration of the solar system.
The present revision was initiated, in part, by a chance remark by Alexandra Navrotsky asking what the Mineral Physics now Mineral and Rock Physics Committee of the American Geophysical Union could produce that would be a tangible useful product.
Susan Yamada, my assistant, deserves special thanks for her meticulous stewardship of these volumes. I thank the technical reviewers listed below whose efforts, in all cases, improved the manuscripts. Thomas J. Brimhall John Brodholt J. Kronenberg Robert A. Lange1 John Longhi Guenter W. Mavko Walter D. Rose, Jr. Von Herzen John M. McCormick With the advent of modern X-ray diffraction instruments and the improving availability of neutron diffraction instrument time, there has been a substantial improvement in the number and quality of structural characterizations of minerals.
Also, the past 25 years has seen great advances in high pressure mineral synthesis technology so that many new high pressure silicate and oxide phases of potential geophysical significance have been synthesized in crystals of sufficient size for complete structural characterization by X-ray methods. The object of this work is to compile and present a summary of these data on a selected group of the more abundant, rock-forming minerals in an internally consistent format for use in geophysical and geochemical studies.
Using mostly primary references on crystal structure determinations of these minerals, we have compiled basic crystallographic property information for some minerals. These data are presented in Table 1. The minerals were selected to represent the most abundant minerals composing the crust of the Earth as well as high pressure synthetic phases that are believed to compose the bulk of the solid Earth.
To facilitate geochemical and geophysical modeling, data for pure synthetic end mcmbcrs arc presented when available. Otherwise, data arc for near end-member natural samples. For many minerals, structure data or samples for pure end members are not available, and in these cases, indicated by an asterisk after the mineral name, data for an impure, natural sample are presented together with an approximate ideal formula and formula weight and density calculated from the ideal formula.
In order to conserve space we have omitted the precision given by the original workers in the unit cell parameter determination. However, we have quoted the data such that the stated precision is less than 5 in the last decimal place given. The cell volumes, molar volumes and densities are calculated by us given so that the precision in the last given place is less than 5. The formula weights presented are calculated by us and given to one part in approximately 20,OflO for pure phases and one part in for impure natural samples.
Smyth, and T. Table 1, Crystallographic Properties of Minerals. Pdm Cuprite 2 4. C2lc Tencrite 4 4. Prima Montroydite 4 6. P63mc Wurtzite 2 3. P63nu: Wurtzite 2 2. Ph Brookite 8 9. Mtlamd Anatase 4 3. Prunb Oiivine 4 4. Fcdm Spine1 Crystallographic Properties of Minerals continued.
Ilmenite 6 5. Rs Ilmenite 6 5. Pbnm Perovskite 4 5. Bbmm Pseudobrookite 4 9. Bbmm Pscudobrookite 4 9. Pbnm Amam P63hmc CaMgKQh RT CaC03 Pmcn SrC03 Pmcn Pbco3 Pmcn BaC03 Pmcn Aragonite 4 5. P21k Kernitc 4 7. P2,la Colemanitc 4 8. Pbnm Baritc 4 7. Pbnm Barite 4 6. Amma Anhydrite 4 7. RTm Alunite 3 7. Prima Antlerite 4 8. Pmcn Arcanite 4 5. P Epsomite 4 P63lm Apatite P63im Apatite I4tlomd Ziicon 7.
R3c Wbitlockite Pmnb Olivine Pi Amblygonite IaTd Ptnm Phm Pbmn Pbnm Olivine 4 4. Irlllumd Zircon 4 6. R7 Wiilemite 18 RI Willemite 18 Rj Willemite 18 Pnnm Andalusite 4 7. Pbam Sillimanite 4 1. PI Kyanite 4 1. Pbnm Topaz 4 4. I Monof2tlb Chioritoid 4 9. Pumpelieyite 1 8. Pztlm Epidote 2 8. P6lmmc Beryl 2 9. Pbca Clinoenstatite MgzSizOs P2tlc Clinoferrosilite Pe2Si Pi Pyroxmangite Mn7Si70a Cc CZm Heuiandite 1
Cambridge Mathematical Methods VCE Unit 1/2 (PDF Version)
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