Suppose a student asks 10 of his friends to write one essay each, then he compiles these essays into a book and says it is written by him. Is he right or wrong? Obviously wrong. Origin of debate: Long after the death of Guru Gobind Singh ji, anti —Sikh and anti-gurmat writings of some poets were compiled along with few writings of Guru Gobind Singh ji.
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Triya Charitar the character of women Zafarnama epistle of victory, a letter written to Emperor Aurangzeb Hikayats. It was designed to be heard, so there is considerable repition, and a variety of meteres to hold the attention. The language of most of the Dasam Granth is largely Braj veering towards Sanskrit at one extreme and simple colloquial Hindi at the other. The Braj dialect is a variety of medieval Hindi with a mixture of Sanskrit, Persiona, and Arabic words.
The Zafarnama and the Hikayats are in Persian using Gurmukhi characters and several passages in other works are in Punjabi. Some of this kind of writing has great power and beauty. Most of the poetry of the Dasam Granth is hardly intelligible to the modern Punjabi reader without the aid of a commentary. In lines ranging from monosyllabic verse to long and multiplied swayyas and kabits, we seem to hear the torrential flow of hill streams or the galloping sweep of cavalry on the march.
His intellect quivers in emotion and breaks out against superstition and hypocrisy into humour, irony or banter. His emotion In it there is the teaching of several of the Shastars, the rules of warfare, the wiles and tricks of women, and some information on worship and religious knowledge.
From that it is evident that Gobind Singh was very clever in writing poetry. The scenes of nature and love, particularly in the Krishna Avatar, are haunting in their loveliness: Krishna Avatar "Beside the sparkling waters of the river, On the bank in silver moonlight bathed Were strewn jasmine pearls as if to make a bed And blossoms twined overhead to make a bower. Krishna took Radha by the hand, tilted up her face And gazed upon her beauty.
Then clasped The damsel fair in his dark arms As a black shade eclipses the moon. Spoke Krishna: "Maiden fair, I sent not for thee. Thy love-lorn eyes have pierced my heart. Beloved mine! I came not at thy command, but to soothe My burns before the warmth of thy love. Therefore said the Guru , I myself will prepare such a Granth that the Sikhs from reading it will learn the art of ruling, the use of weapons, and other skills so that they will become fit for warfare; so from that very day he began the compositions of a huge volume, and when it was completed on Sunday, on the eighth day of the new moon in the month of Bhadon Bikrami he named it "The Granth of the Tenth Sovereign.
Macauliffe gives three reasons for the translations from Hindu mythology and the Hindu epics: To dispel cowardice and incite to bravery by filling the minds of his followers with heroic examples. To show what a brave woman the goddess Chandi could achieve in battle so as to spur brave men on to surpass her achievements. To have his Sikhs see the inferiority of the Hindu sacred writings and so appreciate those of their own Gurus more.
But make no mistake Guru Gobind Singh was a not a vengeful militarist, his poetry was simply meant to inspire his Sikhs to defend themselves, for his wars were wars of defense only. His poetry is and his conduct was filled with a longing for peace and harmonious fellowship, which sometimes even extended even to those who had attacked him and his devotees in the past.
However, most Sikh groups, including all of the older organisations, accept it in its entirety. At one stage it was debated whether to divide the book. This question arose because the original writings of the Tenth Guru had not been joined into one granth, but were separate. They had been collected into a single Granth by Bhai Mani Singh. Bhai Mehtab Singh of Mirankot who was charged by the Panth to capture or assassinate Massa Ranghar who had established himself in the holy Golden Temple at Amritsar and was desecrating its sanctity suggested to the leaders of his community that if he came back victorious in his mission, the book should be preserved in one volume, otherwise it may divided into two.
Mehtab Singh was successful in putting Massa Ranghar to an ignoble death and hence the volume was preserved as it now is. This, however, as the Sikh savant, Bhai Kahan Singh points out, is a most arbitrary way of settling a point of such literary and theological significance.
From to , eminent scholars assembled at the Akal Takht, Amritsar, to study the various printed Dasam Granths and prepare an authoritative version. They consulted as many as 32 editions before preparing the version that is currently in circulation. It vindicated the earlier conclusions and published its findings in a book. However, the controversy continues, as there is reluctance among some modern day preachers to fully accept the entire text of the Dasam Granth.
Therefore, scholars appealed to Baba Virsa Singh , a highly revered spiritual teacher of Sikh background, to gather scholars to clarify the doubts about the Dasam Granth. Mani Singh makes his humble prostration at the holy feet of his venerable mother. Further news is that the climate of this place has aggravated my rheumatism and my health deteriorates fast.
I will have to listen to the healing parable of the tertian fever. But my illness has caused no slackness in the performance of the holy service of the Harmandar Golden Temple. The Khalsa no more hods away over the country and its power has waned. The Sikhs have migrated to the mountain retreats. The Malechhas reign supreme in the country. There is no security for the Sikh children and women in any habitation. They are hunted out and killed. The opposing states have also joined hands with them.
The Hindalis spy on the Sikhs. All the Sikhs have deserted the Chak The earliest name of Amritsar. The Mutsaddis priests have also fled. So far the Immortal Lord protects me. Tomorrow is uncertain.
What is ordained by the Lord shall prevail. The adopted son of Binod Singh has passed away. So far there is no trace of the book "Nam Mala". I found the first part of "Krishna Avtar" but not the second. I shall send it when available. May the Guru protect him. These expenses will be incurred by him. The Mutsaddis have not yet settled accounts, otherwise I would have sent a draft from the city presumably Lahore. If my health improves I shall come in the month of Kartik.
Reply in bamboo stick. The Dasam Granth can be conveniently divided into three sections: Mythological Philosophical Autobiographical. The largest portion is mythological and is devoted to retelling well known tales of Hindu mythology and adding in a reworking from a Gurmat perspective.
It is a common misconception by some uninformed people that Guru Gobind Singh ji workshipped the Hindu deities he wrote about. They assume that since Guru ji praised them in verse, he must have admired and worshipped them also. In reality Guru Sahib Ji wrote about them in the language of the people drawing from the mythological lore current at that time. He wrote about their exploits in colourful martial language to raise courage in the hearts of all who read them.
Everyone is caught in the noose of Death, no Rama or prophet can escape from it. All of them who made grand claims of being Avtars of God died repentant. Why doest not thou, O, hapless being seek the shelter of the One Lord.
I do not recognise them. I am engrossed in the loving devotion of my Lord alone. The Lord of Death, Akal, is my refuge and He saves me is all tribulations. Why then do some learned people think that in these compositions Guru Gobind Singh Ji who sought the protection of Akal Purkh only was worshipping the deity? He then says that you God created the world and that it was from you that Durga, Sri RamJi and Baghwan Krishan Ji got the strength to destroy their enemies.
Arjan, Hargobind and Guru Har Rai be remembered. Sri Harkrishan be meditated upon whose mere glimpse removes all sorrows. Guru Tegh Bahadur be remembered as it causes home to flourish. They all help me at all times. The Lord first created Khanda, the double edged sword and then his manifest world. He created the oceans, mountains, earth and sky which stands above, unsupported by any pillars. He created both gods deities and demons and then created polemic.
It was You who created Durga so as to destroy the demons. Rama also took strength from you to kill Ravan with his arrow. Krishan also got strength from You and thus threw down Kansa by his hair.
Many great deities and ascetics underwent hard austerities, but none could fathom thy greatness. As can be seen from this opening passage that Guru Gobind Singh Ji draws all his strength and inspiration from the one formless God, Akal Purkh. He says that Durga was created by You, O Lord. How then can Guru Ji be worshipping Durga? The attributes and qualities of God delineated herein are based on the transcendental nature of God, He who is without attributes as in the ideology of Nirgunwad.
While on one hand the form and shape of the Almighty God as portrayed in Gurbani have been further honed and highlighted, on the other hand there is an elaboration and embellishment of it. There is specific purpose behind this literary creation and it has been written in a unique style.
In fact, of all the transcendental literature written in the middle age the Jaap Sahib stands out unique for delineating the humanitarian attributes of God who is without attributes by presenting them in a worldly and universal form. It has proved itself as a cardinal literary piece in all northern Indian literature for its brilliance, sublimity and majesty. The Jaap Sahib has no equal. The Jaap Sahib has evolved as the product of extensive reflection, cogitation and deliberation through moments of awe and reverence experienced by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
He is the destroyer of enemies too. From the point of view of diction and style too it is a matchless piece of writing.
Guru Granth and Dasam Granth: A comparison
The beginning portion of the daily Ardaas supplication for Sikhs is also a composition within Sri Dasam Granth. Furthermore, the writings and compositions of the Tenth Guru are also the source of the terminologies and phrases of the Khalsa. Very few persons have made a serious study about their genuineness. It is undeniable that Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is our Living Guru, and its principles and doctrines are our Sole Guide to test the veracity or acceptability of any idea, concept, writing, suggestion or activity.
Triya Charitar the character of women Zafarnama epistle of victory, a letter written to Emperor Aurangzeb Hikayats. It was designed to be heard, so there is considerable repition, and a variety of meteres to hold the attention. The language of most of the Dasam Granth is largely Braj veering towards Sanskrit at one extreme and simple colloquial Hindi at the other. The Braj dialect is a variety of medieval Hindi with a mixture of Sanskrit, Persiona, and Arabic words. The Zafarnama and the Hikayats are in Persian using Gurmukhi characters and several passages in other works are in Punjabi.