In this whole group indeed, the allegorical explanation is still occasionally employed. In the main however we have here actual historical delineations, a systematic statement of the great legislative work of Moses, the contents, excellence and importance of which, the author desires to make evident to non-Jewish readers, and indeed to as large a circle of them as possible. The contents of the several compositions forming this group differ indeed considerably, and are apparently independent of each other. As to plan it is divided into three parts.
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Only the following fragments have been preserved: abundant passages in Armenian — possibly the full work — in explanation of Genesis and Exodus, an old Latin translation of a part of the "Genesis," and fragments from the Greek text in Eusebius , in the "Sacra Parallela," in the "Catena," and also in Ambrosius. The explanation is confined chiefly to determining the literal sense, although Philo frequently refers to the allegorical sense as the higher.
This great commentary included the following treatises: "Legum allegoriae," books i. The first of these on the dreams of Abimelech and Laban preceded the present book i. The exposition of the Law then follows in two sections.
First come the biographies of the men who antedated the several written laws of the Torah, as Enos , Enoch , Noah , Abraham , Isaac , and Jacob. These were the Patriarchs, who were the living impersonations of the active law of virtue before there were any written laws.
Then the laws are discussed in detail: first the chief ten commandments the Decalogue , and then the precepts in amplification of each law. The work is divided into the following treatises: "De Opificio Mundi" comp. The lives of Isaac and Jacob have been lost.
The three patriarchs were intended as types of the ideal cosmopolitan condition of the world. The latter point may be admitted. It seems most natural to preface the discussion of the law with the biography of the legislator, while the transition from Joseph to the legislation, from the statesman who has nothing to do with the divine laws to the discussion of these laws themselves, is forced and abrupt.
Moses, as the perfect man, unites in himself, in a way, all the faculties of the patriarchal types. His is the "most pure mind" "De Mutatione Nominum," 37 [i. As the person awaiting the divine revelation, he is also specially fitted to announce it to others, after having received it in the form of the Commandments ib. To the first and second commandments he adds the laws relating to priests and sacrifices; to the third misuse of the name of God , the laws on oaths, vows, etc.
The second book includes in the editions a section also entitled "De Specialibus Legibus" ii. The complete text of the second book was published by Tischendorf in his "Philonea" pp. The third book is included under the title "De Specialibus Legibus" in ed.
Mangey, ii. The fourth book also is entitled "De Specialibus Legibus"; to it the last sections are added under the titles "De Judice" and "De Concupiscentia" in the usual editions; and they include, also, as appendix, the sections "De Justitia" and "De Creatione Principum. This exposition is more exoteric than allegorical and might have been intended for gentile audiences.
The genuineness of this work has been disputed by Frankel in "Monatsschrift," ii. Other works ascribed to Philo[ edit ] De Vita Contemplativa[ edit ] This work  describes the mode of life and the religious festivals of a society of Jewish ascetics, who according to the author, are widely scattered over the earth, and are found especially in every nome in Egypt. The writer, however, confines himself to describing the Therapeutae , a colony of hermits settled on the Lake Mareotis in Egypt, where each lives separately in his own dwelling.
Six days of the week they spend in pious contemplation, chiefly in connection with Scripture. On the seventh day both men and women assemble together in a hall; and the leader delivers a discourse consisting of an allegorical interpretation of a Scriptural passage. The feast of the fiftieth day is especially celebrated. The ceremony begins with a frugal meal consisting of bread, salted vegetables, and water, during which a passage of Scripture is interpreted.
After the meal the members of the society in turn sing religious songs of various kinds, to which the assembly answers with a refrain. The ceremony ends with a choral representation of the triumphal festival that Moses and Miriam arranged after the passage through the Red Sea , the voices of the men and the women uniting in a choral symphony until the sun rises. After a common morning prayer each goes home to resume his contemplation. But the ritual of the society, which was entirely at variance with Christianity, disproves this view.
The chief ceremony especially, the choral representation of the passage through the Red Sea, has no special significance for Christianity; nor have there ever been in the Christian Church nocturnal festivals celebrated by men and women together.
But there are great dissimilarities between the fundamental conceptions of the author of the "De Vita Contemplativa" and those of Philo. The latter looks upon Greek culture and philosophy as allies, the former is hostile to Greek philosophy see Siegfried in "Protestantische Kirchenzeitung," , No.
He repudiates a science that numbered among Its followers the sacred band of the Pythagoreans , inspired men like Parmenides , Empedocles , Zeno , Cleanthes , Heraclitus , and Plato , whom Philo prized "Quod Omnis Probus," i.
He considers the symposium a detestable, common drinking-bout. This can not be explained as a Stoic diatribe; for in this case Philo would not have repeated it. And Philo would have been the last to interpret the Platonic Eros in the vulgar way in which it is explained in the "De Vita Contemplativa," 7 ii. It must furthermore be remembered that Philo in none of his other works mentions these colonies of allegorizing ascetics, in which he would have been highly interested had he known of them.
While Philo desired to renounce the lusts of this world, he held fast to the scientific culture of Hellenism, which the author of this book denounces. Although Philo liked to withdraw from the world in order to give himself up entirely to contemplation, and bitterly regretted the lack of such repose "De Specialibus Legibus," 1 [ii. Other[ edit ] "De Incorruptibilitate Mundi.
Its Peripatetic basic idea that the world is eternal and indestructible contradicts all those Jewish teachings that were for Philo an indisputable presupposition. Bernays has proved at the same time that the text has been confused through wrong pagination, and he has cleverly restored it. Origen enlarged it by adding New Testament names; and Jerome revised it. It narrates Biblical history from Adam to Saul .
De opificio mundi
Biografia[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Nelle opere di Flavio Giuseppe si possono trovare i pochi dettagli biografici che lo riguardano. Sebbene i nomi dei suoi genitori non siano noti, Filone proveniva da famiglia nobile, onorata e benestante. Fu a suo padre o a suo nonno che Gaio Giulio Cesare aveva concesso la cittadinanza romana. Orgoglio, prepotenza e insolenza erano la sua regola … Il paese sotto di lui fu lasciato al saccheggio e la gente veniva uccisa senza rispetto di alcuna legge.
Filone di Alessandria
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