Pues de hecho es el lenguaje el que habla. Convenecido de que Iachimo ha poseido realmente a Imogena, injuria a la mujer con amargura : Is there no way for man to be, but women Must be half-workers? O vengeance, vengeance! O, all the devils! Or less; at first? For even to vice They are not constant, but are changing still; One vice, but of a minute old, for one Not half so old as that.
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Shelves: lit-crit Steiner cites many texts in French, German, Latin, and Italian, but does not always translate these citations. He does however reiterate the salient points of the quotation so that it is possible to follow his argument without full translation.
Chapter 1. Steiner asserts that, even with speakers of the same language, every act of reading or listening to a verbal message involves translation at some level; the meanings and connotations of words change with time and across social milieus, even from Steiner cites many texts in French, German, Latin, and Italian, but does not always translate these citations. Steiner asserts that, even with speakers of the same language, every act of reading or listening to a verbal message involves translation at some level; the meanings and connotations of words change with time and across social milieus, even from individual to individual.
Chapter 2. Steiner considers the vast number of languages inexplicable; their multiplicity confers no evident benefit and causes definite perils to survival by making cooperation difficult or impossible.
He reflects on the myth of Babel, which asserts the existence of an Ur-Sprache, a universal primal language spoken and understood by God and all humankind.
Chapter 3. It is only through language with its past and future tenses that we have access to the past or can project ideas into the future. Attempts at creating a universal language concentrate on public use of language, communication with others. Chapter 4. Theories of translation fail to have any true utility lacking a theory of language.
Generalizations about translations are tripartite: literal word-for-word translations, paraphrases or adaptations, or the conveying of the meaning of the original reformulated in idiomatic form in the target language. The last involves not a literal translation, but conveys in the target language the sense of the words that a native speaker of the source language would instinctively understand. Conjectures about the way in which languages occupy up physical space in the brain, reflections on instinctive use of analogies of storage and retrieval, spatial relationships when speaking about the use of language.
Chapter 5. A paradox: the sound and style of translations from an exotic language Chinese, Arabic are more intuitive and recognizable than those from geographically or culturally close languages. A translation of Ovid into Italian is presented as an example of translation of closely related languages.
He gives examples of failed translations, betraying the original by either diminishing or elevating it. Two examples of almost perfect translation are given. Chapter 6. Finally he considers the advantages for and threats to English as it becomes an international lingua franca.
Despues de Babel: Aspectos del Lenguaje y La Traduccion