Background[ edit ] During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands , Anne Frank received a blank diary as one of her presents on June 12, , her 13th birthday. He was licensed to manufacture and sell pectin , a substance used to make jam. He stopped running his business while in hiding. But once he returned, he found his employees running it.
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Background[ edit ] During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands , Anne Frank received a blank diary as one of her presents on June 12, , her 13th birthday. He was licensed to manufacture and sell pectin , a substance used to make jam.
He stopped running his business while in hiding. But once he returned, he found his employees running it. The rooms that everyone hid in were concealed behind a movable bookcase in the same building as Opekta. They were long thought to have been betrayed, although there are indications that their discovery may have been accidental, that the police raid had actually targeted "ration fraud".
Anne was 15 years old when she died in Bergen-Belsen. The exact date of her death is unknown, and has long been believed to be in late February or early March, a few weeks before the prisoners were liberated by British troops on April 15, The first volume the red-and-white checkered autograph book covers the period between June 14 and December 5, Since the second surviving volume a school exercise book begins on December 22, , and ends on April 17, , it is assumed that the original volume or volumes between December and December were lost - presumably after the arrest, when the hiding place was emptied on Nazi instructions.
However, this missing period is covered in the version Anne rewrote for preservation. The third existing volume which was also a school exercise book contains entries from April 17 to August 1, , when Anne wrote for the last time three days before her arrest. Anne used the above-mentioned names for her annex-mates in the first volume, from September 25, until November 13, , when the first notebook ends.
On May 20, , she notes that she started re-drafting her diary with future readers in mind. By the time she started the second existing volume, she was writing only to Kitty. Van der Hoek may have been informed by the publication A Tribute to Anne Frank , prepared by the Anne Frank Foundation, which assumed a factual basis for the character in its preface by the then-chairman of the Foundation, Henri van Praag , and accentuated this with the inclusion of a group photograph that singles out Anne, Sanne Ledermann, Hanneli Goslar , and Kitty Egyedi.
The name She observed that she had many "friends" and equally many admirers, but by her own definition no true, dear friend with whom she could share her innermost thoughts. She originally thought her girl friend Jacque van Maarsen would be this person, but that was only partially successful. In an early diary passage, she remarks that she is not in love with Helmut "Hello" Silberberg, her suitor at that time, but considered that he might become a true friend. In hiding, she invested much time and effort into her budding romance with Peter van Pels, thinking he might evolve into that one, true friend, but that was eventually a disappointment to her in some ways, also, though she still cared for him very much.
Ultimately, it was only to Kitty that she entrusted her innermost thoughts. She did not like the others much initially, particularly Auguste van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer the latter shared her room. She was at first unimpressed by the quiet Peter; she herself was something of a self-admitted chatterbox a source of irritation to some of the others.
As time went on, however, she and Peter became very close, though she remained uncertain in what direction their relationship would develop. Editorial history[ edit ] There are two versions of the diary written by Anne Frank. She wrote the first version in a designated diary and two notebooks version A , but rewrote it version B in after hearing on the radio that war-time diaries were to be collected to document the war period.
Version B was written on loose paper, and is not identical to Version A, as parts were added and others omitted. In the spring of , it came to the attention of Dr.
Further entries were also deleted. The diary — which was a combination of version A and version B — was published under the name Het Achterhuis. Dagbrieven van 14 juni tot 1 augustus The Secret Annex. Diary Letters from June 14, to August 1, on June 25, This was published in three volumes with a total of pages.
Pool made a first translation of the Diary, which was never published. As well, Judith Jones , while working for the publisher Doubleday , read and recommended the Diary, pulling it out of the rejection pile. That book by that kid? The introduction to the English publication was written by Eleanor Roosevelt. Other languages[ edit ] The work was translated in into German and French, before it appeared in in the US in English. A subsequent film version earned Shelley Winters an Academy Award for her performance.
After a two-year continuous run at the purpose-built Theater Amsterdam in the Netherlands, the play had productions in Germany  and Israel. Other adaptations of the diary include a version by Wendy Kesselman from ,. The film is derived from the Dutch stage production. New editions[ edit ] In May , Frank van Vree, the director of the Niod Institute along with others, discovered some unseen excerpts from the diary that Anne had previously covered up with a piece of brown paper.
The excerpts discuss sexuality, prostitution, and also include jokes Anne herself described as "dirty" that she heard from the other residents of the Secret Annex and elsewhere. They make it clear that Anne, with all her gifts, was above all an ordinary girl".
There, was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings. Some of the extra passages detail her emerging sexual desires; others include unflattering descriptions of her mother and other people living together. In , a similar controversy arose in a 7th grade setting in Northville, Michigan , focusing on explicit passages about sexuality. The material composition of the original notebooks and ink, and the handwriting found within them and the loose version were extensively examined.
The copyright however belongs to the Anne Frank Fonds, a Switzerland-based foundation of Basel which was the sole inheritor of Frank after his death in Expiration[ edit ] According to the copyright laws in the European Union, as a general rule, rights of authors end seventy years after their death. Hence, the copyright of the diary expired on 1 January When the copyright duration was extended to 70 years in — implementing the EU Copyright Term Directive — the special rule regarding posthumous works was abolished, but transitional provisions made sure that this could never lead to shortening of the copyright term, thus leading to expiration of the copyright term for the first version on 1 January , but for the new material published in in According to Yves Kugelmann, a member of the board of the foundation, their expert advice was that Otto had created a new work by editing, merging, and trimming entries from the diary and notebooks and reshaping them into a "kind of collage", which had created a new copyright.
She added "If you follow their arguments, it means that they have lied for years about the fact that it was only written by Anne Frank.
The foundation also relies on the fact that another editor, Mirjam Pressler , had revised the text and added 25 percent more material drawn from the diary for a "definitive edition" in , and Pressler was still alive in , thus creating another long-lasting new copyright.
Attard had criticised this action only as a "question of money",  and Ertzscheid concurred, stating, "It [the diary] belongs to everyone. And it is up to each to measure its importance.
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