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Life[ edit ] Epiphanius was either born into a Romaniote Christian family or became a Christian in his youth. Either way, he was a Romaniote Jew who was born in the small settlement of Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis modern-day Beit Guvrin , Israel ,  and lived as a monk in Egypt, where he was educated and came into contact with Valentinian groups. He returned to Palestine around , when he was still a young man, and he founded a monastery at Ad nearby,  which is often mentioned in the polemics of Jerome with Rufinus and John, Bishop of Jerusalem.
He was ordained a priest, and lived and studied as superior of the monastery in Ad that he founded for thirty years and gained much skill and knowledge in that position. In that position he gained the ability to speak in several tongues, including Hebrew , Syriac , Egyptian , Greek , and Latin , and was called by Jerome on that account Pentaglossos "Five tongued". He was also the Metropolitan of the Church of Cyprus. He served as bishop for nearly forty years, as well as travelled widely to combat unorthodox beliefs.
He was present at a synod in Antioch where the Trinitarian questions were debated against the heresy of Apollinarianism. He upheld the position of Bishop Paulinus , who had the support of Rome, over that of Meletius of Antioch , who was supported by the Eastern Churches.
In he was present at the Council of Rome , again upholding the cause of Paulinus. He urged John to be careful of the "offence" of images in the churches. He noted that when travelling in Palestine he went into a church to pray and saw a curtain with an image of Christ or a saint which he tore down. He told Bishop John that such images were "opposed. This dispute continued during the s, in particular in the literary works by Rufinus and Jerome attacking one another.
In , the dispute took on another dimension, when the Bishop of Alexandria, Theophilus, who had initially supported John , changed his views and started persecuting Origenist monks in Egypt. As a result of this persecution, four of these monks, the so-called Tall Brothers, fled to Palestine, and then travelled to Constantinople, seeking support and spreading the controversy.
John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople , gave the monks shelter. Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria saw his chance to use this event to bring down his enemy Chrysostom : in he summoned a council in Constantinople, and invited those supportive of his anti-Origenist views. Epiphanius, by this time nearly 80, was one of those summoned, and began the journey to Constantinople.
However, when he realised he was being used as a tool by Theophilus against Chrysostom, who had given refuge to the monks persecuted by Theophilus and who were appealing to the emperor, Epiphanius started back to Salamis, only to die on the way home in The final section covers the often quoted incident of the curtain, which unlike other passages attributed to Epiphanius and quoted by the Iconoclasts, is accepted as authentic by modern scholars:  9.
Moreover, I have heard that certain persons have this grievance against me: When I accompanied you to the holy place called Bethel, there to join you in celebrating the Collect, after the use of the Church, I came to a villa called Anablatha and, as I was passing, saw a lamp burning there. Asking what place it was, and learning it to be a church, I went in to pray, and found there a curtain hanging on the doors of the said church, dyed and embroidered. It bore an image either of Christ or of one of the saints; I do not rightly remember whose the image was.
They, however, murmured, and said that if I made up my mind to tear it, it was only fair that I should give them another curtain in its place. As soon as I heard this, I promised that I would give one, and said that I would send it at once. Since then there has been some little delay, due to the fact that I have been seeking a curtain of the best quality to give to them instead of the former one, and thought it right to send to Cyprus for one. I have now sent the best that I could find, and I beg that you will order the presbyter of the place to take the curtain which I have sent from the hands of the Reader, and that you will afterwards give directions that curtains of the other sort—opposed as they are to our religion—shall not be hung up in any church of Christ.
A man of your uprightness should be careful to remove an occasion of offence unworthy alike of the Church of Christ and of those Christians who are committed to your charge. I pray that you may fare well in the Lord. Written between and , it forms a handbook for dealing with the arguments of heretics.
It lists, and refutes, 80 heresies , some of which are not described in any other surviving documents from the time. There then follows an interlude, telling of the Incarnation of the Word.
After this, Epiphanius embarks on his account of the sixty Christian heresies, from assorted gnostics to the various trinitarian heresies of the fourth century, closing with the Collyridians and Messalians. It is also an important source regarding the early Jewish gospels such as the Gospel according to the Hebrews circulating among the Ebionites and the Nazarenes , as well as the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus.
For example, he describes his enemy Origen as "a toad noisy from too much moisture which keeps croaking louder and louder. Other works[ edit ] His earliest known work is the Ancoratus the well anchored man , which includes arguments against Arianism and the teachings of Origen. It was composed in Constantinople for a Persian priest, in ,  and survives in Syriac, Armenian, and Georgian translations this last is found in Shatberd ms along with Physiologus and De Gemmis.
The texts appear not to have been given a polish but consist of rough notes and sketches, as Allen A. Another work, On the Twelve Gems De Gemmis , survives in a number of fragments, the most complete of which is the Georgian. Brill, Leiden.
Tem He returned to Palestine aroundwhen he was still a young man, and he founded a monastery at Ad nearby,  which is often mentioned in the pamarion of Jerome with Rufinus and John, Bishop of Jerusalem. He suggests that much of the problem lies with the modern textual tradition of the Panarionin particular the edition of Karl Holl, first published in Epiphanius of Salamis Greek: The Principal Works of St. I pray that you may fare well in the Lord. He was present at a synod in Antioch where the Trinitarian questions were debated against the heresy of Apollinarianism. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. In addition, the contents of the letter seem to exhibit significant variance with other known writings in the tradition, in particular a strong and consistent sexual component, and so scholars have pushed the date of the text closer to the end of the second century. It was composed in Constantinople for a Persian priest, in and survives in Syriac, Armenian, and Georgian translations this last is found in Shatberd ms along with Physiologus and De Gemmis.
Epiphanius Panarion Bks II & III
The work is divided into three books, with a total of seven volumes. It ends with what has since been called De Fide, a short description of the orthodox catholic faith of the Great Church. In the editions of the Panarion, each heresy is numbered in order; hence it is customary to quote the Panarion as follows: Epiphanius, Haer. N [the number of the heresy]. The Panarion reflects the character of Epiphanius and his method of working. Sometimes, his intense passion prevents him from inquiring carefully into the doctrines he opposes.
EPIFANIO PANARION PDF