The collection as a whole is attributed to a laywoman named Khujjuttara , who worked in the palace of King Udena of Kosambi as a servant to one of his queens, Samavati. For her efforts, the Buddha cited Khujjuttara as the foremost of his laywomen disciples in terms of her learning. She was also an effective teacher: when the inner apartments of the palace later burned down, killing the Queen and her entourage, the Buddha commented in Udana VII. Because this theme is so central to these discourses, and because it is so commonly misunderstood, I would like briefly to explain it here. Actually, they are central to his teaching, and form one of his most original insights. Although many people assume that the Buddha derived his teachings on kamma from a view of the cosmos as a whole, the line of experiential proof was actually the other way around.
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Introduction The present work offers a translation of the Itivuttaka, a collection of short discourses of the Buddha in both prose and verse. It was previously translated by F. II London, According to the commentarial tradition, the suttas or discourses of the Itivuttaka were collected by the woman lay-disciple Khujjuttara from sermons given by the Buddha while he was staying at Kosambi.
Khujjuttara was a servant of Samavati, the consort of King Udena. She had become a stream-enterer after meeting the Buddha and subsequently converted the women of the palace headed by Samavati to the teaching. She used to go regularly to listen to the Buddha and then later repeated what she had heard to the other women. The collection of these sayings became the Itivuttaka. Whether or not this story is true, the Itivuttaka is the only book in the Pali Canon that introduces and concludes its suttas in this fashion, and it is from the opening statement that the title is derived: "This was said vuttam by the Lord Besides these four sections -- The Ones, The Twos, The Threes, and The Fours -- the text is further subdivided into vaggas, groups of roughly ten suttas.
But to simplify the presentation, in this translation these sub-groupings have been ignored. Only the four main sections have been retained and the suttas numbered from 1 to , as in the PTS edition. A number of the suttas and verses are also found in other parts of the Sutta Pi[dagger]aka, especially the Anguttara Nikaya, but many are unique to this collection. In translating the Itivuttaka I have attempted to follow the text as closely as possible and to produce an exact and literal rendition.
With the verses, however, while remaining faithful to the meaning, I occasionally found it necessary to depart from the syntax of the Pali. Although I did not attempt to produce a metrical translation, by transposing lines and words and controlling the number of syllables in the line, I aimed at producing a readable and rhythmic English rendering of the original Pali verse. A Heap of Bones This was said by the Lord But when one sees with perfect wisdom The four noble truths as they are -- Suffering, the origin of suffering, The overcoming of suffering, And the noble eightfold path Leading to relief from suffering -- Having merely run on Seven times at the most, By destroying all fetters Lying This was said by the Lord What is that one thing?
It is this, bhikkhus: deliberately telling a lie. Giving This was said by the Lord Even if it were their last morsel, their last mouthful, they would not eat without having shared it, if there were someone to share it with. But, bhikkhus, as beings do not know, as I know, the result of giving and sharing, they eat without having given, and the stain of meanness obsesses them and takes root in their minds.
Having given much food as offerings To those most worthy of offerings, The donors go to heaven On departing the human state. Having gone to heaven they rejoice, And enjoying pleasures there, The unselfish experience the result Of generously sharing with others. The Development of Loving-kindness This was said by the Lord The mind-release of loving-kindness surpasses them and shines forth, bright and brilliant.
If with an uncorrupted mind He pervades just one being With loving kindly thoughts, He makes some merit thereby. But a noble one produces An abundance of merit By having a compassionate mind Towards all living beings. Those royal seers who conquered The earth crowded with beings Went about performing sacrifices: The horse sacrifice, the man sacrifice, The water rites, the soma sacrifice, And that called "the Unobstructed.
One who does not kill Nor cause others to kill, Who does not conquer Nor cause others to conquer, Kindly towards all beings -- He has enmity for none. This too is the meaning of what was said by the Lord, so I heard. The Bright Protectors This was said by the Lord What are the two? Shame and fear of wrongdoing.
But as these two bright principles protect the world, there is discerned respect for mother But those in whom shame and fear of wrong Are consistently ever present, Peaceful, mature in the holy life, They put an end to renewal of being. The Not-born This was said by the Lord If, bhikkhus, there were no not-born, not-brought-to-being, not-made, not-conditioned, no escape would be discerned from what is born, brought-to-being, made, conditioned.
But since there is a not-born, a not-brought-to-being, a not-made, a not-conditioned, therefore an escape is discerned from what is born, brought-to-being, made, conditioned. The escape from that, the peaceful, Beyond reasoning, everlasting, The sorrowless state that is void of stain, The cessation of states linked to suffering, The stilling of the conditioned -- bliss.
The Nibbana-element This was said by the Lord The Nibbana-element with residue left and the Nibbana-element with no residue left. Here a bhikkhu is an arahant, one whose taints are destroyed, the holy life fulfilled, who has done what had to be done, laid down the burden, attained the goal, destroyed the fetters of being, completely released through final knowledge. However, his five sense faculties remain unimpaired, by which he still experiences what is agreeable and disagreeable and feels pleasure and pain.
It is the extinction of attachment, hate, and delusion in him that is called the Nibbana-element with residue left. Here a bhikkhu is an arahant For him, here in this very life, all that is experienced, not being delighted in, will be extinguished. That, bhikkhus, is called the Nibbana-element with no residue left. Having understood the unconditioned state, Released in mind with the cord of being destroyed, They have attained to the Dhamma-essence.
Delighting in the destruction of craving , Those stable ones have abandoned all being. This was said by the Lord Devas and humans enjoy being, delight in being, are satisfied with being. When Dhamma is taught to them for the cessation of being, their minds do not enter into it or acquire confidence in it or settle upon it or become resolved upon it. Thus, bhikkhus, do some hold back. Herein a bhikkhu sees what has come to be as having come to be. Having seen it thus, he practises the course for turning away, for dispassion, for the cessation of what has come to be.
Thus, bhikkhus, do those with vision see. When a bhikkhu has fully understood That which has come to be as such, Free from craving to be this or that, By the extinction of what has come to be He comes no more to renewal of being. Escape This was said by the Lord What three? The escape from sensual desires, that is, renunciation; the escape from form, that is, the formless; and the escape from whatever has come to be, from whatever is conditioned and dependently arisen, that is, cessation.
These, bhikkhus, are the three elements of escape. Such a bhikkhu who sees rightly Is thereby well released. Accomplished in knowledge, at peace, That sage has overcome all bonds. A Rainless Cloud This was said by the Lord One who is like a rainless cloud, one who rains locally, and one who rains everywhere. Here, a certain person is not a giver to anyone; he does not give food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, lodging, and lamps to recluses and brahmins, to the poor, destitute, and needy.
This kind of person is like a rainless cloud. Here, a certain person is a giver to some but not a giver to others. Food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, lodging, and lamps he gives only to some recluses and brahmins, to some of the poor, destitute, and needy, but not to others. This is the kind of person who rains locally. Here, a certain person gives to all. He gives food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, lodging, and lamps to all recluses and brahmins, to the poor, destitute, and needy.
This is the kind of person who rains everywhere.
Udana and Itivuttaka (tr. Ireland).pdf
Itivuttaka | This was said by the Buddha