In its contrapuntal mastery and its ingenuity in the treatment of a single theme, the Lachrimae cycle stands alongside The Art of Fugue composed by J. Bach a century and a half later. Most recordings of the Lachrimae use the standard instrumentation of a consort of viols, ranging from treble to bass and accompanied by a lute. For his second recording of the cycle, however, the Italian violist Cristiano Contadin has boldly created a broken consort performance which mixes the recorder and also early violin and viola in with the uniquely grainy timbre of the viols. Such an instrumentation exploits the long association of the recorder with music of lamentation, and makes a historical connection with, for example, the cantatas of Bach. Now, with three generations of period performance research and practice under their belts, musicians are beginning to play this music with the kind of freedom and spontaneity and emotion they would accord in other ways to Brahms, and this new recording deserves comparison with the most distinguished accounts from the recent past.
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Mikakinos Unfortunately, such lachirmae the huge number of settings, derivatives and imitations it spawned that only a small sample can be fruitfully discussed here. Down vain lights, shine you no more!
A similar situation can be observed in some later lute settings, such as Stobaeus possibly as late as lachrimaw s? Flow, my tears, fall from your springs! Earle of Oldenburge and Delmenhorst.
Furthermore, close examination of the undivided strains reveals pavqn greater similarity between the two versions than initially meets the eye or ear, although the divisions are largely unique.
Mistress Nichols Almand From the highest spire of contentment My fortune is thrown; Antiuae fear and grief and pain for my deserts, for my deserts Are my hopes, since hope is gone. IMSLP does not assume any sort of legal responsibility or liability for the consequences of downloading files that are not in the public domain in your country.
However, one should take care not to assume that this is necessarily a successful intabulation of its model, nor that it is an intabulation of a good arrangement.
This study has only scratched the surface of a large topic and would be hugely enhanced by similar research into the multitude of similarly-transmitted English pieces that were popular across late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth century Europe. Valerius could have based his parts directly on 2nd Bookeor one of any number of derivatives that may have been circulating in manuscript. This may have been borrowed from an Orlande de Lassus motet or Luca Marenzio madrigal this type of motif was common in Elizabethan music to signify griefin addition to other borrowings in the piece.
Since this source includes five pieces signed by Dowland and is thought to have belonged to a student of his, it seems plausible that this version may be another of his own creation. An interesting approach to the English G minor setting can be found in the Thesaurus Harmonicus of the French lutenist Jean-Baptiste Besard Cologne,who spent much of his career in Germany as a lute teacher.
It is also worth noting that the earliest firmly datable version of this piece, that printed from wood-blocks in Barleyis a G minor setting of a similar ilk to those already discussed. Including the lute tablature and an alternate harpsichord part. Nevertheless, a number of salient features are shared between these versions and Rudenone of which lachrinae encountered in the English transmission s.
It is not always clear whether the many paavan contained in this print arise from typesetting errors or constitute genuine attempts at recomposition. The widespread dissemination of this piece is unsurprising for two reasons; firstly, Dowland travelled extensively as one of the most sought-after lute virtuosi of his age, holding various posts in Germany and Denmark antiquad, secondly, the vogue for English dance music spread rapidly throughout the German-speaking courts of Northern Europe during the later years of the sixteenth century.
Virtuoso passage-work remains prominent throughout however; this setting is one of the most elaborate of all lute versions. Pavqn musical details suggest very strongly that the Herold setting is also the work of Van den Hove, something which is further supported by the fact that many of the pieces located nearby in Herold are either ascribed to him or were included in Florida a year before Herold was copied from its exemplar.
This page is only for complete editions and multiple selections from the collection here. For instance, rhythms are often dotted in later sources especially throughout bars 11aacadential formulae slightly varied, and pitch inflections and chord voicings are occasionally the subject of minor alterations.
Intavolation in french Lute-tabulatur for 2 lutes Unisono. The earliest sources for this setting are Dd. Another instance of a Continental lute arrangement derived from the English G minor version can be found in Fuhrmannascribed to V[alentin] S[trobel]. Editor Franz Julius Giesbert?
The undivided strains employ essentially the same structural pitches throughout, suggesting that they are derived from a common harmonic template. Nicholas Gryffith his Galliard Certainly, there were A minor versions dating from at least the same time as the early G minor sources, with a unique A minor setting with divisions also occurring in Dd. The kind of detailed comparative examination we have begun here on a modest subset of this corpus would only be feasible on the full collection let alone larger corpora with the aid of computer analysis software tools.
Two sources, Hirsch and the fragmentarypreserve another, possibly earlier, A minor setting. Light doth but shame disclose. These file s are part of the Werner Icking Music Collection. Whilst the melodic contour of the English piece has been both eroded bar 4 wntiquae elaborated bar 6 in places Example 3the Romers version is largely harmonically consistent with its probable model, and displays the characteristically English auxiliary note in bar 2.
Separated parts have been extracted and rotated for 1 part per page: Unusually, the divisions on each strain of the pavan are reproduced with great consistency, the only exceptions being ML which has some added flourishes and which omits the divisions altogether.
Most notably, this would appear to be an example of a Continental version being exported back to England, since, as well as the south-German copy in Haslemereit appears alongside a good deal of other Continental music in Cosens, 36vwhich is certainly of English provenance.
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