In addition tryptophan can be converted in the body to Niacin, which theoretically reduces the incidence of Pellagra. By the mids, they had produced a QPM germplasm with hard kernel characteristics and good taste similar to the traditional grain and with much higher quality levels of lysine and tryptophan. Integrating cereal chemistry and plant breeding techniques, Drs. Quality protein maize flour, Tanzania Quality protein maiz… Flickr The grain of quality protein maize QPM varieties contains nearly twice as much lysine and tryptophanamino acids that are essential for humans and monogastric animals.
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Further information: Protein quality In Central and South America , Africa , and Asia , several hundred million people rely on maize as their principal daily food, for weaning babies, and for feeding livestock. Unfortunately maize corn has two significant flaws; it lacks the full range of amino acids , namely lysine and tryptophan , needed to produce proteins , and has its niacin vitamin B3 bound in an indigestible complex.
The Mayans and Aztecs used to boil maize in the alkaline limewater which broke down the complex so that the Niacin became available. However, in the main this practice did not transfer to the Old World or settlers in the "New World" which resulted in epidemics of Pellagra from the 16th century onwards.
A chronic lack of protein in the diet leads to kwashiorkor. These two amino acids allow the body to manufacture complete proteins, thereby eliminating wet-malnutrition. In addition tryptophan can be converted in the body to Niacin, which theoretically reduces the incidence of Pellagra. Development[ edit ] Modified maize with higher protein content dated back to the s, and the "opaque-2" variety had been developed in While its lysine and tryptophan levels were better than those of conventional maize, opaque-2 had lower yields and a soft, chalky kernel, which made it more susceptible to ear rot and insect damage.
Moreover, the taste and kernel appearance dissatisfied consumers, who ultimately rejected the enhanced-protein varieties in the market. Villegas was in charge of the lab investigating protein quality and Dr. Vasal was a plant breeder newly assigned to work on developing QPM varieties that would gain widespread acceptance. Integrating cereal chemistry and plant breeding techniques, Drs. Vasal and Villegas collaborated to combine the existing opaque-2 maize with genetic modifiers.
Through the s, they produced and analyzed germplasms at an astonishing rate, sometimes processing up to 25, samples a year. By the mids, they had produced a QPM germplasm with hard kernel characteristics and good taste similar to the traditional grain and with much higher quality levels of lysine and tryptophan.
However, their discovery remained unexploited for years because many nutritionists felt that protein could be added to the diets of the most poor in other ways. Additionally, pigs fed QPM experience rapid weight gain and are ready for market sooner or can provide an additional quality protein source for small farm families.
This centre has developed several bakery products like Biscuit, cake muffins, extruded products puffcorns and pasta using QPM flour.
Maíz QPM, opción para México
Quality Protein Maize