The mineral substance coating on a sanding belt that removes material from the board. Additive Material introduced into a panel during the manufacturing process which imparts a particular property. Additives include preservatives, water repellents, and fire retardant, but not binders. Adhesive A substance glue capable of bonding material together via surface attachment - such as a laminate to a panel. ANSI A Methods of identifying products conforming to the standard are specified.
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The mineral substance coating on a sanding belt that removes material from the board. Additive Material introduced into a panel during the manufacturing process which imparts a particular property.
Additives include preservatives, water repellents, and fire retardant, but not binders. Adhesive A substance glue capable of bonding material together via surface attachment - such as a laminate to a panel. ANSI A Methods of identifying products conforming to the standard are specified. Property requirements are described in metric and imperial units.
Backer A non-decorative laminate used on the back of composite panels to protect them from changes in humidity. Backers are often used to balance laminated panel construction with the objective of preventing warping or cupping.
Balanced Construction A composite panel which is laminated in a fashion usually two-sided that resists warping when subjected to uniformly distributed changes in humidity. Binder The substance generally resin that bonds the fiber together in composite panels. Blending The application of binder and additives to fiber in the manufacturing of composite panels.
Blow A localized delamination caused by steam pressure build-up during a hot pressing process. Borer Holes Voids made by wood-boring insects, such as grubs or worms. Bow The deviation from flatness along the length of the panel. Broken Grain A leafing, shelling, grain separation separation on veneer surface between annual rings. Butt Joint A straight joint in which the interface is perpendicular to the panel face.
An end butt joint is perpendicular to the grain. Caliper The measurement of board thickness. Also refers to the tool used to measure thickness or diameter. Center Gap See crossband gap Centers Inner layers whose grain direction runs parallel to that of the outer plies. May be of parallel laminated plies.
Check A lengthwise separation of wood fibers, usually extending across the rings of annual growth, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.
Chip Load The amount of material removed by each cutting tooth of a saw blade, router, or shaper, as it moves through the material being cut. Climb Cutting A machining technique in which the cutting tool rotates in the same direction as the material being cut is traveling.
Crossband Inner layers whose grain direction runs perpendicular to that of the outer plies. Sometimes referred to as core. Crossband Gap and Center Gap An open joint extending through or partially through a panel, which results when crossband or center veneers are not tightly butted. Crown A phenomenon in which the center of the panel is thicker along its length than at the two long edges. Cup Deviation from a straight line across the width of the panel.
Decorative Foils Cellulose papers weighing between 40 and grams per square meter in an untreated state. Impregnation with melamine thermoplastic resins can add 20 to 40 grams per meter - depending on the basis weight of the paper.
Foils require an adhesive for lamination. Defects, Open Irregularities such as splits, open joints, knotholes, or loose knots, that interrupt the smooth continuity of the veneer. Delamination A visible separation between plies that would normally receive glue at their interface and be firmly contacted in the pressing operation.
Wood characteristics, such as checking, leafing, splitting, and broken grain, are not to be construed as delamination. See corresponding definition for those terms. For purpose of reinspection, areas coinciding with open knotholes, pitch pockets, splits, and gaps and other voids or characteristics permitted in the panel grade are not considered in evaluating ply separation of Interior type panels bonded with interior or intermediate glue.
In evaluating Exterior type panels for ply separation, the area coinciding with the grade characteristics noted in paragraph a are considered, and a panel is considered delaminated if visible ply separation at a single glueline in such an area exceeds three square inches. All other forms of permissible defects - shall not exceed the size of the defect.
Density The weight of a panel as measured in pounds per cubic foot, or in kilograms per cubic meter. Density Profile Gradient density of a panel from face to face. Depression A concave area in the surface of the panel.
Direction of Grain Usually refers to the linear direction of a wood grain pattern, or the direction in which a composite panel has moved through a sander. Dulling Effect A low-gloss area on a wet-coated panel usually caused by an incompatible finishing material, a soft panel surface, or excessive pre-heating of the panel prior to coating. Edge Banding A laminate material which provides a protective decorative surface for panel edges. Snipe is difficult to spot visually, but can be measured with a caliper.
Edge Splits Wedge-shaped openings in the inner plies caused by splitting of the veneer before pressing. Equilibrium Moisture Content EMC The state at which the panel neither gains nor loses moisture given the relative humidity and temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.
Face The face of the plywood panel; the side of a panel that is of higher veneer quality on any panel whose outer plies front and back are of different veneer grades; either side of a panel where the grading rules draw no distinction between faces.
The face ply of a panel; the outer veneer on the face of a panel. Face Blisters A dark densified area on the panel surface that may rupture or break upon cutting or machining. Fiber Raise Fiber Pop A situation in which the face fibers of a composite panel have raised above the surrounding surface - usually caused by moisture absorption.
Filler A high-solids finishing material used to fill small voids or pits in panel surfaces and edges. Flame Spread The rate at which flame spreads along the surface of a material as measured in a standard testing procedure. The rating is expressed in numbers or letters as they relate to finishing requirements or building codes.
Flow-back The degree by which a material will compress before being penetrated by a cutting tool. Foils Thin decorative paper laminates with a melamine topcoat for durability. Former MDF mill equipment that forms the furnish into a pressable mat. Furnish The blended wood fiber and binders used in composite panel manufacturing.
Grit Marks Linear abrasions caused by the sanding process. Grit Size A reference to the coarseness of the abrasive material on a sanding surface. The lower the grit number, the coarser the abrasive material. Group Term used to classify species covered by this Standard. Species covered by this Standard are classified as Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
See Table 1 for listing of species in individual groups and the reference in Section 2 for product use information. Hardboard A general term referring to hot pressed engineered wood panels made with refined wood and a lignin binder. Additives may be introduced during the manufacturing process to impart certain properties such as stiffness and hardness.
The density range is roughly 55 to 75 pounds per cubic foot. Heartwood Nonactive core of a log generally distinguishable from the outer portion sapwood by its darker color. Heat Transfer Foils A panel laminating system involving the transfer of a complete coating surface from a carrier film to a substrate by means of heat and pressure. Heavy White Pocket May contain a great number of pockets, in dense concentrations, running together and at times appearing continuous; holes may extend through the veneer but wood between pockets appears firm.
At any cross section extending across the width of the affected area, sufficient wood fiber shall be present to develop not less than 40 percent of the strength of clear veneer.
Brown cubicle and similar forms of decay which have caused the wood to crumble are prohibited. High Pressure Laminate HPL Built-up sheet laminate constructed of multiple layers of kraft paper saturated with phenolic resin, a decorative layer impregnated with melamine resin, and a clear or tinted thin overlay heavily saturated with melamine resin.
The layers are bonded together under heat and pressure to form a very durable surface for use in applications such as counter tops or panel edges. Hook or Rake Angle Degrees of angle on a cutting tool affecting the ease with which it penetrates the material being machined. Unlike air-dried adhesives, hotmelts cure as they cool. Sub-face, sub-back, crossband and center are classed as inner plies. Jointed Inner Plies Crossband and center veneer that has had edges machine-squared to permit tightest possible layup.
Kerf The width of a saw cut. Knot Natural characteristic of wood that occurs where a branch base is embedded in the trunk of a tree. Generally the size of a knot is distinguishable by a difference in color of limbwood and surrounding trunkwood. Natural characteristic of wood that occurs where a branch base is embedded in the trunk of a tree.
Generally the size of a knot is distinguishable by a difference in color of limbwood and surrounding trunkwood abrupt change in growth ring width between knot and bordering trunkwood diameter of circular or oval shape described by points where checks on the face of a knot that extend radially from its center to its side experience abrupt change in direction. Knotholes Voids produced by the dropping of knots from the wood in which they are originally embedded.
Laminate n A decorative overlay. Lap A condition where the veneers are so placed that one piece overlaps the other. Layer A layer is a single veneer ply or two or more plies laminated with parallel grain direction. Lot Any number of panels considered as a single group for evaluating conformance to this Standard.
Low Pressure Laminate LPL A pre-printed or solid-colored decorative paper saturated with melamine resin which, under heat and pressure, is bonded to a panel surface without the need for additional adhesive. The resulting durable surface is featured in a broad range of products from kitchen cabinetry to laminate flooring.
Mat Refined fiber as it is formed and conveyed to the press. Medium Density Fiberboard MDF An engineered wood product made from mechanically refined wood fibers combined with resin, which are bonded together under heat and pressure. The durable homogeneous construction of MDF resists warping, cracking and splitting - offering unparalleled design flexibility where intricate shaping and finishing are required. Some of the more common uses of MDF include furniture, cabinetry, millwork, store fixtures and laminate flooring.
As with solid wood, the nature of MDF can vary significantly between manufacturers, based on wood species and production technology.
Melamine Resin A resin formulation used in the saturation of paper overlays which adheres to the panel substrate in hot press lamination. Modulus of Rupture MOR The pounds per square inch measure of the maximum breaking strength of a board when loaded as a simple beam.
Netaur The revision includes updating of various voluntary consensus standards that have been updated, superseded, or withdrawn since publication of the notices of proposed rulemaking on June 10, This latest Final Rule contains, inter aliathe following important changes: Please do not hesitate to contact us for further information. Take the next step How a EPA updates voluntary consensus standards in formaldehyde emission standards for composite wood products rule. On February 7,the EPA published a Final Rule in the Federal Register 83 FR  to update anei references for multiple voluntary consensus standards that were incorporated in the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products final rule of December 81 FR [ 4 ].
This latest Final Rule contains, inter aliathe following important changes: Revising 14 standards see Table 1 to reflect the latest editions that are in use by the composite wood industry. On February 7,the EPA published a Final Rule in the Federal Register 83 FR  to update the references for multiple voluntary consensus standards that were incorporated in the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products final rule of December 81 FR [ a Please do not hesitate to contact us for further information. Stay on top of regulatory changes within your industry: The revision includes updating of various voluntary consensus standards that have been updated, superseded, or withdrawn since publication of the notices of proposed rulemaking on June 10, Stakeholders are advised to comply with the latest requirements for composite wood products for the US market.
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