All available sources of energy are essential to meet future energy demand, including coal. For the past decade, global coal consumption has grown faster than any other fuel owing to its utilization e. Here, elemental analysis allows for classification of coal based on total carbon and sulfur content which may be converted to CO2 and SO2 emission. Moreover, understanding the carbon-hydrogen ratio reveals the heating value. Solid biofuels present unique challenges to elemental analyzers due to their difficulty to homogenize and large elemental ratios.
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Kakree Select two additional reference materials, one approximately at the mid-point of the range and one below the lowest level of sulfur expected. Analyze the test samples using the apparatus conditions employed for calibration. Asym comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which atsm may attend. Supporting data have been? This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
Weigh a mass of the sample to at least the nearest 1 mg and not exceeding the maximum mass of reference material s used for calibration. Energy is absorbed as the gas passes through the astk body in which the IR energy is being transmitted: Sulfur dioxide absorbs IR energy at a precise wavelength within the IR spectrum.
Last previous edition approved in as D — ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned asmt this standard. It is normally heated electrically using resistance wire. Twelve laboratories participated in this study. Use a mass of material and the calibration procedure recommended by the apparatus manufacturer.
Thus, the absorption of IR energy can be attributed only to sulfur dioxide whose concentration is proportional to the c in energy at the detector. Only use material s with an assigned value and assigned uncertainty for sulfur. Originally approved in Do not regenerate the absorbent. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. D a material with a sulfur value near the mid point of the expected calibration range.
Analyze the test samples using the apparatus conditions employed for calibration 8. Use at least three such reference xstm, for each range of sulfur values to be tested. Analyze a test portion of reference material s 7. Position the sample in the hot zone of the furnace until the instrument returns to baseline as indicated according to settings recommended asm the manufacturer. All other IR energy is eliminated from reaching the detector by a precise wavelength?
It is normally heated electrically using resistance rods, a resistance wire, or molybdenum disilicide elements. During combustion at temperatures d? In addition, information for coke was calculated per E using 48 sets of data for 24 coke samples from a commercially astn interlaboratory pro?
Do not use the reference material for calibration or calibration veri? Warning—Tungsten Oxide is a strong oxidizing agent. Use a mass that does not exceed the maximum mass used for instrument calibration and with a sulfur value within the range of the instrument calibration.
No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Warning—Pure oxygen vigorously accelerates combustion. Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that d reagents conform to the speci? The cokes used in this study included furnace coke, foundry coke and coke breeze.
The remaining material can be used for instrument conditioning. Related Posts.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U. Department of Defense. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Referenced Documents2.
ASTM D4239 - 14E2