According to these protocols, Finland, Estonia , Latvia and Bessarabia were within the Soviet sphere of interest, and Poland and Lithuania fell into the German sphere of interest. Following French-British indecision, Britain acted alone moving forward with a two-hour ultimatum at am on September 3, which France was then forced to follow, issuing its own ultimatum. Nevertheless, despite declarations that a state of war now existed with Germany, the inter-Allied military conferences of September 4—6 determined there was no possibility of supporting an eastern front in Poland. France subsequently requested Britain not bomb Germany, fearing military retaliation against the French populace. It was determined to do nothing , so as to not provoke a transfer of German forces to the western front.
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According to these protocols, Finland, Estonia , Latvia and Bessarabia were within the Soviet sphere of interest, and Poland and Lithuania fell into the German sphere of interest.
Following French-British indecision, Britain acted alone moving forward with a two-hour ultimatum at am on September 3, which France was then forced to follow, issuing its own ultimatum. Nevertheless, despite declarations that a state of war now existed with Germany, the inter-Allied military conferences of September 4—6 determined there was no possibility of supporting an eastern front in Poland.
France subsequently requested Britain not bomb Germany, fearing military retaliation against the French populace.
It was determined to do nothing , so as to not provoke a transfer of German forces to the western front. Chamberlain declared on September 12 "There is no hurry as time is on our side. On the tribune are Major General Heinz Guderian centre and Brigadier Semyon Krivoshein right Stalin then moved forward with his part of the Pact, ordering the Red Army on September 17 to cross the Soviet-Polish frontier under the claimed necessity to protect the Belarusians and Ukrainians in the territory of Poland, which Soviets argued "ceased to exist" in the wake of German successes.
Shortly thereafter, on October 3, , the German ambassador to the Soviet Union, Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg , had also suggested to Molotov that various changes in the borders of the Lithuanian territory wait until the "Soviet Union incorporates Lithuania, an idea on which, I believe, the arrangement concerning Lithuania was originally based.
There were no impediments remaining to Stalin, in concert with Hitler, achieving his aims in the Baltics. Moscow demanded that Baltic countries allow the USSR to establish military bases and station troops on their soil for the duration of the European war. As far as Germany is concerned we could occupy you. The government of Estonia accepted the ultimatum signing the corresponding agreement on September Ratifications were exchanged in Riga on October 11, , and the treaty became effective on the same day.
Article 2 obliged the Soviet government to assist the Latvian government in providing armaments. Article 3 permitted the Soviet government to establish military and naval bases on Latvian territory. Article 4 obliged the Soviet and Latvian governments not to engage in military alliances against the other party. Article 5 stipulated that the political and economic systems and the sovereignty of both parties shall not be affected by the treaty.
Article 6 dealt with ratification, and stipulated that the treaty shall remain in force for ten years, with an option to extend it for further ten years. Section 5 of the Pact reads as follows: "The carrying into effect of the present pact must in no way affect the sovereign rights of the contracting parties, in particular their political structure, their economic and social system, and their military measures.
The areas set aside for the bases and airfields remain the territory of the Latvian Republic. A second call a year later brought out another 10, On October 5, , the Finns had been invited to Moscow to "discuss mutual problems. Because the Soviet attack was judged as illegal, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December Four months before the arrival of Soviet troops in Latvia, Vilhelms Munters , addressing an audience at the University of Latvia on February 12, , stated, "We have every reason to describe the relations existing between Latvia and the Soviet Union as very satisfactory.
There are people who will say that these favourable conditions are of a temporary nature only, and that sooner or later we shall have to reckon with internal-political and foreign-political pressure on the part of the Soviet Union. The foundation on which they base these prophesies is a secret of the prophets themselves.
The experience of our Government certainly does not justify such forebodings. When those failed to develop into a general strike, the Soviets blamed that failure on the "irresponsible element which spoils the good neighbourly relations.
November 7, Soviet-organized first May Day rally in Riga, On May 28, , the Lithuanian Minister in Moscow received a note from Molotov which dealt with the alleged kidnapping of two Soviet soldiers in Vilna. The Lithuanian government sought to clear up this matter by a Soviet-Lithuanian commission under the terms of the mutual assistance pact. Moscow rejected this proposal and cut off further discussion, soon showing and rapidly playing their hand: On June 12, , the order for a total military blockade on Estonia to the Soviet Baltic Fleet is given: according to the director of the Russian State Archive of the Naval Department Pavel Petrov C.
On the same day, the Soviet blockade of Estonia went into effect. According to eyewitness accounts pieced together by Estonian and Finnish investigators, two Soviet bombers downed Finnish passenger airplane Kaleva flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.
Antheil Jr. Unable to resist on their own, with no external assistance available, under threat of the bombing of cities and heavily outnumbered, Latvia and Estonia capitulated. Loss of independence[ edit ] Soviet orchestration of events continued following the invasion, complete with protestors, who had arrived with the Red Army troops, organizing mass marches and meetings in order to create the impression of popular unrest: June 19, — Vishinski visits Ulmanis again, this time, to deliver the list, pre-approved by Moscow, of the new members of the cabinet of the Latvian government.
June 20, — Ulmanis forced to approve pro-Soviet government which takes office. Jailed members of the formerly illegal communist party released. Public "processions of thanksgiving" organized in honour of Stalin. Molotov is blunt in communicating the Soviet intent to occupy the entire region: "You must take a good look at reality and understand that in the future small nations will have to disappear.
Your Lithuania along with the other Baltic nations, including Finland, will have to join the glorious family of the Soviet Union. Therefore you should begin now to initiate your people into the Soviet system, which in the future shall reign everywhere, throughout all Europe; put into practice earlier in some places, as in the Baltic nations, later in others.
Deportations are already taking place from territory not yet part of the Soviet Union. July 14—15, — Rigged elections held in Latvia and the other Baltic states. The ballot must be deposited without any changes. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow 12 hours before the election closed. Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated.
Tribunals were set up to punish "traitors to the people. Those who failed to have their passports stamped for so voting were allowed to be shot in the back of the head. It has only one piece of business—a petition to join the Soviet Union. The consideration of such an action was denied throughout the election. The petition carried unanimously.
However, it was illegal under the Latvian Constitution, still in effect, which required a plebiscite referendum for approving such an action: two-thirds of all eligible participating and a plain majority approving.
Ulmanis is forced to resign. July 22, — Ulmanis deported to the Soviet Union, dying in captivity in July 23, — the US Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles condemns the "devious processes" by which "the political independence and territorial integrity of the three small Baltic republics were to be deliberately annihilated by one of their more powerful neighbours.
Latvia was incorporated as the 15th Republic of the Soviet Union. Aside from Germany, no Western nation recognizes the annexation as legitimate de jure.
Accurate numbers for the losses the Soviets inflicted on Latvia are not available. They have been estimated at 35, dead from military action, executions, or deportation. These losses all began during the first Soviet occupation. This term was also used in anti-Soviet propaganda of the period—these two uses should not be confused or allied in purpose. Further mass deportations and killing were planned, however the German invasion of Soviet territory, brought a halt to this.
A Lithuanian government official claims to have seen a document envisaging the removal of , from Lithuania. The Soviet authorities, having gained control over Latvia, immediately imposed a regime of terror. Hundreds of men were arrested, including many leaders of the Republic of Latvia. Immediate confiscation of property and execution within 24 hours was decreed for diplomats abroad who refused to recognize the new regimes and return to Latvia.
On June 22, , all three Baltic parliaments passed initial resolutions on the nationalization of land, followed in Latvia by a Bill of Land Reform a week later.
Initially, a maximum of 30 hectares of land could be used by a family, reduced during the second Soviet occupation to 15—20 hectares.
Approximately 35, total 1. The mass deportation totalled , across the Baltics. According to the Serov Instructions , the deportations were swift and efficient and came in the middle of the night.
Deportees were given an hour or less to get ready to leave. The families would then be taken to the railway station. The convoy of the entire family to the station shall be effected in one vehicle and only at the station of departure shall the head of the family be placed separately from his family in a car specially intended for heads of families.
Packed into barred cattle cars, with holes in the floor for sanitation, the deportees were taken to Siberia. Many died before even reaching their final destination because of harsh conditions. Many more perished during their first winter. A number of Latvians who managed to avoid deportations decided to hide in the forests, where anti-Soviet units were organized.
1941. gads: Baigais gads
Left Commissar of the Interior A. Center Mozus Citrons, Daugavpils KGB doctor with a salary rubles per month — three times the normal salary for doctors. For whom was he providing medical services? During the night the shot people were delivered outside Riga in trucks to be interred. At the bottom: bloody tarpaulin found in the yard of the KGB with which were covered those to be led on their last path.
Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940
The principal difficulties encountered are the fact that Latvian does not employ definite articles, leaving the translator to puzzle out whether to write "an objection" one of perhaps many or "the objection" meaning just one ; the fact that prepositions in direct translation are often not what is really being meant, such as "from" meaning someone sent by a group when what was really meant in context was "of" meaning someone who is an actual member of the group ; and finally, the fact that after fifty years of Soviet repression, contemporary Latvian dictionaries are much smaller in size and fewer in number than their English counterparts, making it extremely necessary for the translator to have read and reread both versions many times and then to employ both a native speaker of Latvian and a native speaker of English to read together and discuss in detail the nuances and alternatives. One specific method was employed in this translation, as the publisher decided that the importance of this information required the most clear and accurate translation possible: where an unavoidable choice between accuracy and clarity had to be made, accuracy was chosen and clarity has been achieved through footnoting. In other instances, it was recognized that particular terms or references might not be understood without a definition or explanation, and these are also footnoted. The translators are satisfied that their instructions were to create a thoroughly accurate translation in all respects. For the title, it was translated in the former in view of the nature of the events being related. In the text, the latter was used to describe individual situations as less drastic than the sum of such acts. Page 1 Edvards Virza: This heart-wrenching poem, with its strange and dirge-like meter, sounds in Latvian much like the slow pealing of a distant bell or the far-off weeping of a lost child.
Baigais Gads – Latvia: Year Of Horror