Structure and chapters[ edit ] Yudhishthira arrives in Hastinapur to be crowned as king of the combined Kaurava and Pandava kingdoms. This Parva book traditionally has 3 sub-parvas sub-books or little books and adhyayas sections, chapters. Rajadharma anusasana Parva   This sub-book describes the duties of kings and leaders, among other things. Apaddharma anusasana Parva  This sub-book describes the rules of conduct when one faces adversity. Moksha dharma Parva  This sub-book describes behavior and rules to achieve moksha emancipation, release, freedom. Shanti parva begins with sorrowful Yudhishthira lamenting the loss of human lives during the war.
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Structure and chapters[ edit ] Fight between Bhishma and Arjuna. This Parva book traditionally has 4 sub-parvas sub-books or little books and adhyayas sections, chapters. Jamvu - khanda Vinirmana Parva chapters 1 - 10  The parva begins with a meeting of two sides where the rules of war are agreed.
Rishi Veda Vyasa , the grandfather to both Kauravas and Pandavas , offers a blessing to Dhritarashtra - who is blind - in the form of the gift of sight, so he can see the tragedy unfolding ahead.
Dhritarashtra declines the offer, claiming he does not want to witness the slaughter of his family and friends. Vyasa then gave boon of celestial vision to Sanjaya, to have knowledge of everything, Manifest or concealed, happening there, even thoughts in the mind. And weapons will not be able to harm him, while the war is in progress. He will describe the war to Dhritarashtra. King Dhritarashtra confides that his sons do not listen to him or obey him.
Vyasa counsels war is evil, victory in war is uncertain, only sorrow and slaughter on all sides is certain no matter who wins. Sanjaya describes the sights of world to him. He describes the world near him, as well as far of places in north, south, east and west, everywhere with beautiful people, of forests, fruits and birds, of moon and planets that appear with stars at night. The description makes Dhritarashtra sad that his sons are choosing war, rather than a negotiated peace.
Bhumi Parva chapters 11 - 12 Sanjaya continues to describe the world. He mentions island nations, nations without kings, lands with white people, black people, mixed race people, celestial gems, ocean of milk and ghee. Then he describes the planets seen at night, why they are believed to be globes, that light-giving sun too is a very large sphere according to calculations of Arka, eclipses occur when planets temporary cover the sun or moon.
Such is the merit of the world we live in, says Sanjaya. Bhagavad Gita Parva chapters 13 - 42  Dhritarashtra asks Sanjaya for the details of war over the ten days. Sanjaya describes how Bhishma marshaled the Kaurava army by declaring, "to die at home is a waste of life, a chance to die in battle for a cause is the highest honor a man can have.
Arjuna reminds him that Narada told him that where there is Dharma there is Krishna and where there is Krishna there is victory. In fact, Arjuna believed in that vedas were told by God and to attain Godhood one must become a monk by leaving off home and birth-caste. As Krishna had demanded five villages for settlement so Arjuna asked his charioteer Krishna whether he should become a monk or fight Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 1, Shlok Pandavas headed by Yudhishthira meet Bhishma in the battlefield before the start of Kurukshetra war.
Arjuna asks Krishna, his charioteer, to bring the chariot between the two assembled armies, to see who were assembled to fight. He sees friends, families and human beings on both sides of the war. Introspective Arjuna wonders if their cause justifies war, bloodbath. War only kills, it arouses only hate among kindreds and human beings.
Arjuna tells Krishna, "I seek neither victory nor a kingdom. These answers range from nature of life to demands of justice, to three paths of liberated and free life, to human duty, and are collectively called the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna grants him the sight to view his extraordinary form.
Arjuna apologizes for not being able to recognize him as a divine, and for the words and disrespect he had shown, if he had said anything carelessly, from judgement on occasions in the past, regarding him a friend. Beholding Dhananjaya taking up once again his Gandiva, Pandava party uttered a tremendous shout.
There came the gods with Indra, from desire of witnessing the sight of that great slaughter. Just before the war, Yudhishthira too takes off his armour, comes off his chariot, and with namaste pressed hands walks over to the enemy side.
His brothers amazed by his act, join him and walk across the line of war. Yudhishthira with his brothers, meet and bow before enemy generals and their preceptors- Bhishma, Drona, Kripa and Salya, one by one - to seek their permission and blessings to fight them, to death.
Bhishma, moved by this humane action, says he admires their sense of humanity, and wishes them to obtain victory. Yudhishthira asks him, how shall they, in battle, vanquish him. Bhishma refuses by saying his time is not yet come. Then he goes to Drona with same desire.
Drona blesses him with victory and says, as long as he fight, they cannot vanquish him. Then he goes to Kripa with same intent. Kripa too blesses him and says it is difficult to slay him. Salya says he will look after his victory and his wish, shall be accomplished. With choked voices and tears, their soldiers cheer the Pandava brothers for their namaste and exhibition of respect for the human beings on the side of the enemy.
Yudhishthira and Pandava brothers return to their side. Karna said, he will not do anything that is disagreeable to his friend.
Hearing these words of Karna, Krishna ceased, and headed back to his side. Yuyutsu, abandoning his Kaurava brothers, from Yudhishthira speech, join Pandava side. Yudhishthira accepts him and filled with joy.
The conches blare the start of war. The war begins. Bhishma-vadha Parva chapters 43 -  1st day of war On the first day, flying arrows cover the sky and a cloud of dust obscures the sun.
The twang of bowstrings and battle cries of two sides creates a tempest of sound. Satyaki rushed against Kritavarman.
Bhimasena struggled in battle against Duryodhana. Dussasana rushed against Nakula. Yudhishthira himself encountered Salya. Dushtdhaumya rushed against Dron.
Ghatotkacha and Alamvusha, both Rakshasha of cruel deeds, encountered each other. Bhagadatta battle Virata. Drupada rushed against Jayadratha. And thus general engagement took place between all other. In that frightful and terrible battle, Bhishma began to waver, divisions of Pandavas.
Bhishma then protected by five mighty car-warriors, penetrated the Pandava host. Then Abhimanyu in wrath, resists all those car warriors. In that fierce combat, the mighty Bhishma invoked many low-tier celestial weapons in air and aimed at Abhimanyu. And at this, ten great bowmen and car-warriors came to protect him, with Bhima, Dhrishtadyumna and Satyaki among them. Uttara engages Salya, cripples Salya chariot. Salya then hurled an iron dart, slaying Uttara outright.
Sweta beholding his brother slain, blazed up in wrath, and rushed with the desire of slaying Salya the ruler of Madras.
Sweta kills hundreds of noble princes fighting for the Kauravas. Bhishma seeing his side destruction, impetuously rushed to that side against him. In that battle, both destroyed each other chariot, cut off bow, pierced each other. When Bhishma got advantage in fight, there comes to his rescue many car-warriors with Satyaki, Bhimasena, Dhrishtadyumna and Abhimanyu in them. Drona, Kripa and Salya comes to aid Bhishma. Bhishma checks all those car-warriors alone.
Then taking out an arrow, placing and powering it with Brahma energy, released it with such a force, piercing through Sweta armor and body, struck into the earth. Dhanajaya slowly withdrew his troops from that side. Bhishma comes roaring to that side trembling Pandava host. Then Arjuna to protect Sankha from Bhishma, quickly placed himself in front of him and engages him.
Bhishma destroys Sankha car and abandoning Arjuna rushed towards Drupada, the king of Panchalas. Bhishma kills numerous soldiers fighting for the Pandavas. Duryodhana filled with delight beholding Bhishma in battle, whereas Yudhishthira filled with grief consults Janarddana, accompanied by all.
He consults with commander of his army, Dhrishtadyumna, to change array of his army by name Krauncharuma for next day. Bhishma shows his terrible prowess, by showering arrows upon Abhimanyu, Arjuna, Virata, Dhrishtadyumna and many others and wavered the mighty array of the Pandavas. Car-divisions of the Pandavas began to fly away. Then Arjuna, beholding Bhishma annihilating his host angrily said to Janarddana to proceed to that place where grandsire is to slay him.
Sanjaya comments about who else save Bhishma, Drona and Karna are capable of advancing in battle against bearer of Gandiva and have a chance against him. Arjuna encounters a group protecting Bhishma and battles with them. Satyaki, Virata, Dhrishtadyumna, five sons of Draupadi and Abhimanyu comes to support him.
Duryodhana criticizes Bhishma to do something of Arjuna. Battle commences between both parties with Bhishma against Arjuna. Gods beholding their prowess from sky, comments that excited with rage, they both are equal, and are incapable of ever being vanquished in battle by themselves or other beings. Drona battles Dhrishtadyumna and cut off his bow three times along with destruction of his chariot two times.
Dhrishtadyumna taking a shield and large scimitar rushed towards Drona, but Drona did not let him proceed. Bhima rescues him. Duryodhana sent Kalinga army to check Bhima. Drona abandoning Dhrishtadyumna, encountered Virata and Drupada together.
Nirn Bhishma Parva He was aggressive and prone to anger, of all the brothers, he alone opposed Yudhishthira, although very loyal to him, for his questionable decisions opposing common sense in the name of dharma. Seeing a young boy perform such feats even Shalya was impressed. Then the diadem-decked Arjunaexcited with rage and placing Sikhandin to the fore, approached Bhishma nearer and once more cut off his bow. Bhishma abducting princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika from the assemblage of suitors at their swayamvara. The Avatar Krishna then proceeds to explain to Arjuna why he must fulfill his duty as a warrior, and how he can emerge from this spiritual crisis of conscience with a clean slate.
Faushura When Gandharis pregnancy continued for a long period of time. This gave him recognition among the gods. The helpless blind king only intervened after counseling with Gandhari when Draupadi was going to curse the Kuru dynasty, Lord Krishna as a peace emissary of Pandavas traveled to Hastinapura persuading Kauravas to avoid bloodshed of their own kin Namaste — Namaste, sometimes spoken as Namaskar or Namaskaram, is a respectful form of greeting in Hindu custom, found on the Indian subcontinent mainly in Nepal and India and among the Indian diaspora. When they were young, Bhimas bullying and taunting were a constant source of pain for Duryodhana, Balarama described Duryodhanas body to be lightning made flesh. Krishna statue at the Sri Mariamman temple, Singapore.
First of all, it contains the Bhagavad Gita, the best-known Hindu sacred text. Secondly, this book describes the start of the enormous battle which is the center-piece of the work, specifically the first ten days of conflict, up to the fate of the hero Bhishma. The Bhishma Parva starts with an overture of apocalyptic and unnatural portents. It then immediately digresses into a treatise on geography and natural history--one of several texts which the great epic accreted over time. After this comes the Bhagavad Gita, which unlike some of the other digressions, is a good thematic fit in the narrative.