Sociability 20 items — score range 0 — 40 , Scale III. The four subscale scores are used to calculate a total score 77 items — score range 0 to Overall scores in each subscale and in total can be used to determine the severity of the participant with higher scores indicating more impairment and lower scores with less impairment. Furthermore this was also indicative in results with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy between CARS and total ATEC domains with sensitivity equal to 0.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Identification of health issues in children with autism spectrum disorder ASD is paramount to provide appropriate care and interventions.
It is unclear whether these two scales can be used interchangeably or whether high scores on one scale are comparable to the other. Forty children with a prior diagnosis of ASD seen during the period from October to August were included.
The overall mean CARS score was Future studies are needed to assess the validity of ATEC and its correlation with other well established scales. It is characterized by a qualitative impairment in communication and social interaction in addition to a range of restricted stereotyped, repetitive behaviours and interests as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Revision DSM-IV [ 1 ]. There is a substantial evidence suggesting that children with ASD tend to have more health-related problems compared to typically developing children [ 2 , 3 ].
Reported co-morbidities include anxiety [ 4 , 5 ], hyperactivity [ 6 ], aggressiveness and destructive behaviours [ 7 ], gastrointestinal problems [ 8 ], sleep disturbances [ 9 , 10 ] and sensory processing abnormalities [ 11 — 13 ]. A few behavioural rating scales in which a wide range of symptoms are assessed have been developed to accurately diagnose ASD.
However, most of the well-established ASD measures do not address related health issues. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist ATEC [ 14 ] is exceptional in that it provides an insight into health issues often missed by most other scales. The ATEC is a parent-rated measure. A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ASD who were attending for routine follow-up in this clinic during the period from October to August were included.
Children with a genetic, neurologic or metabolic diagnosis were excluded. The study protocol was explained to the parents and informed consent was obtained. Parents were asked to complete ATEC while in the waiting area.
Afterwards, CARS was performed by a qualified psychologist specifically trained to carry out such tests. Scores on both scales were separately collated and raw scores see below were obtained by a qualified psychologist. Neither the professional nor the parent was aware of the scores generated from their respective completed tests. Demographic data was collected on each participant as well as a detailed medical history including any periods of developmental regression.
Clinical Measures CARS was shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing children with autism from children with learning disabilities and distinguishing ASD from other developmental disorders [ 15 ]. CARS is a item behavioural rating scale developed to diagnose autism in combination with clinical judgment. Additionally, it assesses the severity of the disorder. Studies have shown that CARS is a reliable and a stable indicator of autism in any child over 2 years of age as well as in adolescents [ 19 ].
Items included in this scale are: relating to people; imitation; emotional response; body use; object use; adaptation to change; visual response; listening response; taste, smell, touch response and use; fear or nervousness; verbal communication; nonverbal communication; activity level; level and consistency of intellectual response and general impressions.
Each item is scored from 1 no pathology to 4 severe pathology. ATEC is a one page form designed to be completed by parents or teachers [ 14 ]. ATEC has been validated to be used in children above the age of 2 years.
Scores can range from 0 to 28 , Scale II sociability; has 20 items. Total score ranges from 0 to The higher the total score, the more impaired the participant. However, the ATEC is not nationally normed and the evidence for reliability and validity is limited. Percentages for all nominal variables age, gender, nationality, regression and severity of ASD were also calculated.
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality to check if data of both scales were normally distributed was used. Data of the two scales were not normally distributed, so Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the two total scores. When p-value was less than 0. Accordingly, the male: female ratio was 4. Among the participants, Saudi children were more preponderant than non-Saudis Based on the CARS scale, 21participants
Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC)
History Edit Many psychological measures for autism assess stability over time. However, with the rise of various preventative programs for autism, there is an increased need for these measures to assess change over time. The ATEC was created to measure the success of these preventative programs and measures change over time in children of various ages. High quality practice parameters have now been established to help guide the assessment and treatment of ASD.
Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist
Study participants were evaluated using a CARS conducted only by a single study investigator JKK who observed the participants and interviewed the parent s. The CARS is a item behavioral rating scale developed to identify autism as well as to quantitatively describe the severity of the disorder Schopler et al. The items are as follows: I. Relating to People; II.