Tesar A mafioso in these regions could protect multiple small estates at once, which gave him great independence and leverage to charge high prices. The Mafia, this book suggests, is not nearly as bizarre as all that, not nearly as remote as we might think. The Mafia retaliated violently. Diego Gambetta — Wikipedia In one of his books, Gambetta illustrates this concept with the scenario of a meat wholesaler who wishes to sell some meat to a supermarket without paying sales tax. Diego Gambetta born in TurinItaly is an Italian born social scientist.
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In reference to a man, mafiusu mafioso in Italian in 19th century Sicily signified "fearless", "enterprising", and "proud", according to scholar Diego Gambetta. In Islamic law, Jizya , is the yearly tax imposed on non-Muslims residing in Muslim lands. And people who pay it are "exempted" from prosecution. The word mafia was then used to refer to the defenders of Palermo during the Sicilian Vespers against rule of the Capetian House of Anjou on 30 March The word "shade" meaning refuge or derived from refuge.
Most Arab smallholders became serfs on new estates, with some escaping to "the Mafia. Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the groups and families that comprise the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups are given the label. Giovanni Falcone , an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in , objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.
For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves this is often because they are engaged in black market deals. Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods.
For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves.
These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term krysha. With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, [ Suppose a grocer wants to buy meat from a butcher without paying sales tax to the government. Because this is a black market deal, neither party can take the other to court if the other cheats.
The grocer is afraid that the butcher will sell him rotten meat. The butcher is afraid that the grocer will not pay him. Their solution is to ask the local mafioso to oversee the transaction, in exchange for a fee proportional to the value of the transaction but below the legal tax.
If the butcher cheats the grocer by selling rotten meat, the mafioso will punish the butcher. If the grocer cheats the butcher by not paying on time and in full, the mafioso will punish the grocer. Punishment might take the form of a violent assault or vandalism against property. The grocer and the butcher both fear the mafioso, so each honors their side of the bargain. All three parties profit.
Mafia sycylijska Prywatna ochrona jako biznes Diego Gambetta
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